1. Pag-aaral ng suliranin sa pamamagitan ng pagmamasid.
2. Pagbuo ng teorya o haka-haka ang pangsamantalang kasagutan sa suliraning pinag-aralan.
3.Paglikom ng mga datos
(3.1) Pagbabasa ng mapa , pag-aaral ng mga chart, talahanayan, estatistika, pagbabasa ng mga aklat, pahayagan at magasin.
(3.2) Pakikipag-ugnayan at pagsusuri.
(3.3) Pag-aayos ng mga nalikom na datos sa isang chart, talahanayan o dayagram.
(3.4) Pagsusuri at pagbuo ng mga datos.
(3.5) Paghahambing at pag-uuri ng mga datos.
4. Pagsubok sa Teorya o haka-haka
5. Pagbuo ng konklusyon
6. Paglalapat ng konklusyon
Valya Telep, Former Extension Specialist, Child Development, Virginia State University
Effective discipline helps children learn to control their behavior so that they act according to their ideas of what is right and wrong, not because they fear punishment. For example, they are honest because they think it is wrong to be dishonest, not because they are afraid of getting caught.
The purpose of punishment is to stop a child from doing what you don't want - and using a painful or unpleasant method to stop him.
There are basically four kinds of punishment
The first two kinds of punishment, physical and verbal, are not considered to be effective discipline methods. The other two, withholding rewards and giving penalties, can be used either as effective discipline methods or as punishment - depending on how parents administer them.
Note: Since it is awkward to refer to the child as "he/she," all references in these lessons to the child as "he" refer to both boys and girls.Mild or Harsh?It is important to look at the way parents administer physical punishments.
A swat on the bottom is a mild physical punishment. While it may do no permanent physical harm, it does not help the child develop a conscience. Instead, it teaches him that physical violence is an acceptable way of dealing with problems. Parents should avoid physical punishment. If they find themselves using it, then something is wrong and their method of discipline is not working. They may as well admit that spanking is more effective in relieving the parents' frustration than in teaching the child self-control. More effective methods are needed.
Harsh physical punishment and verbal abuse can never be justified as ways to discipline children. Parents usually spank when they are angry; a parent may not realize how hard he is striking the child. Verbal abuse hurts the child's self concept.Why Punishment Doesn't WorkPhysical punishment usually doesn't work for several reasons. First, it makes the child hate himself and others. Physical punishment makes the child think that there must be something awfully wrong with him to be treated so badly. If children think they are "bad," then they will act "bad." A vicious cycle is formed. The child who has been treated harshly has no reason to be good. Or he may be good just to keep from being punished and not learn to be good because he thinks it is the right thing to do.
Children who have been spanked feel that they have paid for their misbehavior and are free to misbehave again. In other words, spanking frees the child from feelings of remorse which are needed to prevent future misbehavior.
Parents who use physical punishment are setting an example of using violence to settle problems or solve conflicts, Children imitate their parents' behavior. When parents use physical punishment, children are more likely to use violent acts to settle their conflicts with others.
Another disadvantage of using physical punishment is that parents have to find other discipline methods when the child becomes as tall and as strong as the parent! Why not start using effective discipline methods when the child is young?
Where reward and punishment focus on the child, encouragement and reality discipline target the act. Reward and punishment teaches the child to be "good" as long as we are looking. When rewards are our chief way of motivating children we run the risk of creating "carrot seekers": children who are always looking for and expecting a reward every time they do something good or right. If we give a child money for making his bed this week, he'll wonder where his money is next week. Instead of being self-motivated by a desire to cooperate or help other family members, we have taught the child to look to us for his source of motivation.
Effective Discipline . . .
Harsh Punishment . . .
Some parents spank because they place a high value on obedience. Their whole aim is for the child to "mind," to do what he is told without question. There are times when a child needs to obey instantly, such as when he starts to run out in the street without looking.
When obedience is the parent's main objective, however, the child becomes passive and loses his zest for life.
The question of spanking is an emotional issue which parents feel very strongly about. They can be divided into one of three groups. They think either:
Parents who spank ask, "What's wrong with it?" It isn't a question of right or wrong, but of what is best for the child. Perhaps parents who spank frequently should ask themselves:
Often, attitudes toward physical punishment reflect religious beliefs and ideas about what children are like. Child development educators believe that the child is born neither good nor bad; they have the possibility of becoming good or bad according to how they are treated, the kind of experiences they have, and their reaction to their environment. Since these educators believe that children are not naturally bad, they think children need to be disciplined in ways which help them learn to do what is "right" rather than be punished.
Harsh discipline focuses anger on the parent.
Effective discipline allows children to "hurt from the inside out" and focus on their actions.Using
ito ay isang agham dahil gumagamit ng siyentipikong pamamaraan sa paglutas sa mga suliranin.
Ang pamamaraan ng kasaysayan ay nag-uumpisa sa pagsasaliksik ng mga tao lalo na ang mga tanyag na historian. Pagkaptapos nito, ay pinapaalam na ito sa atin sa pamamgitan ng pag-aaral, pagpapalabas sa dyaryo at sa telebisyon.
mahalaga ang pag-aaral ng kasaysayan dahil nagbibigay ito ng karagdagang kaalaman at mga pangyayaring nangyari sa nakalipas na panahon.
ang pinagmulan ng kasaysayan ay...
Mahalaga ang pag aaral ng kasaysayan sapagkat iniuugnay nito ang mga pangyayari noong nakalipas na panahon sa mga pangyayaring ngayon upang magsilbing gabay at inspirasyon sa mga kabiguang naganap o di kaya nama'y tagumpay.
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ang heographiya ang pagaaral ng lugar