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Gen./heneral Jonathan Wainwright

-humalili si heneral jonathan wainwright bilang pinuno ng USAFFE.

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wala bang maayos na sagot dyan?

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Q: Pumalit kay heneral Douglas mac arthur sa pamahala ng USAFFE?
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Ano ang layunin ng pagtatag ng USAFFE?

ano ang usaffe

Ano Ang ibig sabihin ng usAffe?

united states armed force far east

How could my father be a petty officer in World War 2 when he was in the USAFFE ad a Captain?

Well, he was either one or the other.. couldn't have been both.

Why were the Philippines involved in World War 2?

The Philippine Commonwealth Army was created by Philippine Commonwealth Act Number 1, approved December 21, 1935. With the threat of war with Japan imminent, on July 26, 1941, a new command in the Far East was created known as the United States Army Forces Far East (USAFFE) and the Far East Air Force (FEAF). On the same date the President of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt, issued Presidential Order 6 Fed. Reg. 3825 which called the Philippine Commonwealth Army into the service of the Armed Forces of the United States.The Presidential Order of July 26, 1941, did not order all the military forces of the Philippine government into the service of the United States Armed Forces. Only those units and personnel indicated on orders issued by a general officer of the United States Army were mobilized and made an integral part of the United States Army Forces Far East (USAFFE). Only those members of a unit who physically reported for duty were inducted.The Japanese saw the Philippine islands as being vital because of their natural resources and great strategic location. The United States ultimately had to liberate the islands forcibly with the first assault at Leyte beach in the province island of Tacloban. This was the largest amphibious operation mounted by American troops at that time.

What mistake did general Douglas MacArthur make in December 1941?

In December 1941, General Douglas MacArthur, who was then the commander of the United States Army Forces in the Far East, made a strategic miscalculation during the early stages of World War II in the Pacific. His mistake was underestimating the Japanese military's ability to launch an attack on the Philippines. MacArthur believed that the Japanese would not be able to successfully invade and attack the Philippines due to its geographical location and the strength of the American defenses. As a result, he spread out his forces across various locations in the Philippines, instead of concentrating them in strategic defensive positions. However, on December 8, 1941, just hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese launched a surprise attack on the Philippines. Japanese forces swiftly advanced and quickly overwhelmed the American and Filipino defenders. MacArthur's dispersed and underprepared forces were unable to effectively counter the Japanese offensive. Despite MacArthur's efforts to defend the Philippines, he was forced to evacuate with his family and key staff members to Australia on March 11, 1942, in a move that became known as the "Bataan Death March." The fall of the Philippines to Japanese forces marked a significant setback for the United States in the early stages of the war in the Pacific. MacArthur's decision to underestimate the Japanese threat and disperse his forces in the Philippines is often regarded as a critical mistake. However, it is important to note that MacArthur later returned to the Philippines in 1944 and played a key role in the successful liberation of the country from Japanese occupation. if you want lern more chekout free book

What is the battle of Bataan?

The Battle of Bataan represented the most intense phase of Imperial Japan's invasion of the Philippines, in the early stages of the World War II. The capture of the Philippine Islands was crucial to Japan's effort to control the Southwest Pacific, seize the resource-rich Dutch East Indies, and protect its Southeast Asia flank.

What were some of the achievements of the first president of the Philippines Manuel Roxas?

Manuel Roxas (1892-1948) was the last president of the Commonwealth and the first president of the Republic of the Philippines. His administration demonstrated decisively that political sovereignty without economic independence encourages reaction, perpetuation of social injustices, and exploitation. Manuel Roxas was born in Capiz, Capiz Province, on Jan. 1, 1892. In 1914 he graduated from the College of Law of the University of the Philippines. In 1916 he became provincial governor. In 1922 he was elected to Congress, becoming Speaker of the Philippine Assembly. In December 1931 Roxas, together with Senate president pro tempore Sergio Osmeña, left for the United States to secure the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act from the U.S. Congress, which would grant Philippine independence after a transition period of 10 years. This bill was rejected by the opposition forces led by Manuel Quezon. In 1934 Roxas was elected to the constitutional convention. In 1938 he was appointed secretary of finance by Commonwealth president Quezon and then became his trusted adviser. In 1941 Roxas ran for the Senate and won. On Dec. 8, 1941, at the outbreak of the war, Roxas served as lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE). He refused to join Quezon in fleeing to the United States because he wanted to preserve the morale of the Filipino soldiers fighting in Bataan and Corregidor. He was captured in 1942 by the Japanese forces in Malaybalay, Bukidnon, and was forced to serve in the puppet government of José Laurel. Roxas accepted the position of chairman of the Economic Planning Board in Laurel's wartime Cabinet. During the Japanese retreat he allegedly escaped from the Japanese high command in Baguio on April 15, 1945. Because of Gen. Douglas MacArthur's unexplained intervention, Roxas was never tried as a collaborator, though he had served officially in Laurel's Japanese-sponsored administration. When the Philippine legislature convened during the liberation, Roxas was elected president of the Senate on June 9, 1945. He broke with President Osmeña and formed the Liberal party, which he led to victory as presidential candidate on April 23, 1946. Roxas thus became the last president of the Commonwealth and the first president of the Republic of the Philippines when it was inaugurated on July 4, 1946. Owing to the unfair demands of the Bell Trade Relations Act of 1945, which called for a revision of the Philippine constitution to give parity rights to Americans in exchange for rehabilitation money, Roxas found himself surrendering his country's freedom and its right to determine its own destiny. Faced by the unified opposition of workers and peasants, the majority of the people, Roxas sided with the oppressive landlord class and the colonialistic merchants to put down by force the legitimate aspirations of the electorate. It is public knowledge that most of Roxas's policies were dictated by Gen. MacArthur and U.S. high commissioner Paul V. McNutt. Not only did Roxas lack the vision to foresee the causes that would strain Philippine-American relations later (for example, the Military Bases Agreement of March 14, 1947), but he also failed to sympathize with the plight of the majority of the poor. Roxas was committing the Philippines to the side of the United States at the start of the cold war in a speech at the Clark Air Force Base when he suffered a heart attack on April 14, 1948. Loyal to the United States to the last, he died on American soil.

What is the History of Calatrava Negros Occidental?

~Municipality Of Calatrava~Calatrava was named after the city of La Mancha in Central Spain. An ancient fortress in the middle ages, it was also given the Military Orders of Spain, famous for its so-called Cruz de Calatrava and considered as one of the highest decorations given by the King of Spain. Calatrava at one point was forced to become a barrio when the administerial form of government was transferred to San Carlos, formerly known as "Nabingkalan" in 1906.The latter used to be "arrabal" or barrio of Calatrava.Calatrava fought for its identity and regained its township status on October 4, 1924. This was achieved through the political representation of Cebuanos led by Alipio Villarante. When the town held its first elections in 1932, Don Antonio Menchaca was elected as the first municipal president. The municipality of Calatrava is bounded in the north by the municipality of Toboso and the city of Sagay, in the south by the city of Sagay, in the east by the Tañon Strait and in the west by the city of San Carlos and the municipality of Don Salvador Benedicto.Calatrava is a 1st class municipality in the province of Negros Occidental, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 74,623 people in 15,151 households. The current mayor is Boy Baguio. Calatrava at one point was forced to become a barrio when the administerial form of government was transferred to San Carlos, formerly known as Nabingkalan in 1906. The latter used to be an arrabal or barrio of Calatrava. The town today is a known source of limestone and coal as well as of woven products. It is also a sanctuary for a tribe of wild monkeys who have become friendly to people especially those with food to share. == == == == Calatrava is politically subdivided into 40 barangays. * Agpangi * Ani-e * Bagacay* Bantayanon * Buenavista * Cabungahan * Calampisawan * Cambayobo * Castellano * Cruz * Dolis * Hilub-Ang * Hinab-Ongan* Ilaya * Laga-an * Lalong * Lemery * Lipat-on * Lo-ok (Pob.) * Ma-aslob * Macasilao * Malanog * Malatas * Marcelo* Mina-utok * Menchaca * Minapasuk * Mahilum * Paghumayan * Pantao * Patun-an * Pinocutan * Refugio * San Benito * San Isidro * Suba (Pob.) * Telim* Tigbao * Tigbon * Winaswasan ~Short place name information~ Location Name Type Alternative Name: Calatrava Name Type: Native Area / State: Negros Occidental Coordinates & Location Type Area Type: Populated place Location Type: Populated PlaceLatitude: 10.59694 Longitude: 123.4781 Latitude (DMS): 10° 35' 49 N Longitude (DMS): 123° 28' 41 EMaps & Location database updated: 2004-02-27 San Carlos City was formerly named Nabingkalan, deriving its name from Nabingka, a beautiful daughter of a chieftain of the Negrito settlement in the area, who ruled the barrio during the early part in the 17th century. She was famous for her loveliness and mental and physical prowess. After her death, the people mourned for two years, and to perpetuate her memory, named the barrio Nabingkalan. The settlement was later bought by Carlos Apurado from Badian, Cebu, who, with the help of fellow pioneers, developed the settlement into a thriving Christian village. Fragments of written history show that in 1856, the Island of Buglas (Negros), as a politico-military province under Spain, was divided into two provinces, West Negros under Iloilo and East Negros under Cebu. The barrio of Nabingkalan under Calatrava, was under the jurisdiction of Iloilo. Señor Don Emilio Saravia, the first political-military governor in the island during the Spanish era, renamed the place and established it as a pueblo. San Carlos prospered through the years, however, the village lost its pueblo category, and in 1890, when Negros Island was divided into Negros Occidental and Negros Oriental, San Carlos was recorded as an arrabal or barrio of Calatrava (Hilub-ang). On October 16, 1898, a parish priest of Calatrava, then the township under which jurisdiction Nabingkalan, was a barrio, visited the place. He found it more prosperous than the town proper. So he assembled the cabezas de barangay and after a short conference, decided to name the new town San Carlos, in honor of the Patron Saint of the barrio, Saint Carlos Borromeo, whose feast day was November 4, and on that same day, the seat of the town was transferred to San Carlos. During the first years of the American occupation of the Philippines, the economic and social pace of the activities of the people were gauged on the movements of the big landholders and Spaniards in the lowlands. In 1903, the political arena was a hot place, it being the first taste of the Filipinos to elect their own leaders. In 1912, when a sugar central was constructed, the economic life of the people was greatly enhanced. The political activities, however, was closely woven with that of Calatrava, until 1925, when Calatrava was organized into a municipality. From 1899 to the last days of the administration of the municipality of San Carlos, the following persons have served as presidentes and mayors, and have contributed in one way or another to the progress of the town: == * Agustin Ylagan (4 terms) * Bernardino Lazanas * Domingo Medina (2 terms) * Eugenio Antonio, Jr. * Fausto Caballero * Jose Cervantes * Juan P. Broce (2 terms) * Pelagio Carbajosa * Vicente Atienza * Vicente Flores == * Antonio Azcona (in the occupied area) * Anacleto Factoran (in the free area) * Juan P. Broce == * Constancio Rabacal (2 Terms) * Constancio Rabacal (Appointed) * Dominador Zaragoza (Appointed) * Eugenio Antonio, Jr. (Appointed) * Gregorio R. Reonisto (OIC-1987) * Sofronio C. Carmona The First World War encouraged the people of San Carlos to produce more sugar-producing crops. After the armistice in 1917, the planters who produced more sugar had their wealth greatly increased because of the new price of sugar never before enjoyed by the planters. During World War I, many sons of San Carlos volunteered to fight for the United States, but a few months later, were sent back home because of the armistice.San Carlos was actively involved on the war efforts againts Imperial Japan during The Second World War (World War II). Presumably, a month after the surrender of Negros to the Japanese Imperial Forces, the Guerrilla Movement began in San Carlos and Calatrava. As early as June 15, 1942, Guerilla Units under the leadership of Capt. Eugenio Antonio,Jr., Lt. Leonardo Marane and Lt. Alfredo Valdivia assisted by the Philippine Commonwealth Military Troops began operations against the enemy. Pitch battles were fought within the environs of the "poblacion". In spite of the presence of Maj. Edward McClenahan, a US Army officer, separate Guerrilla Units were scattered in the area under different Commanders. The American Major was not able to establish a formal chain-of-command among the different Guerilla Factions effectively. There were even skirmish fightings among each other, not by words but by gun fires. The return of some local USAFFE officers to San Carlos, the guerrilla movement was formally organized into fighting units under USAFFE Capts. Catalino D. Rivera, Eugenio Antonio, Jr. and Loreto Y. Apuhin, together with Lts. Florencio C. Yap and Andres L. Arrogante, the bands of roving guerrillas in San Carlos were consolidated under one command. Young College Students in their early teens (just barely enought to carry rifles) joined the ranks and fought bravely face-to-face against the Japanese. Notable among them were: Mansueto D. Quijote, Sr., Odon Requieron, Sr., Vidal Bordaje and Rodick Diaz, all of them "College Boys".Professionals on their own rights, later join the cause,namely; Eufemio A. Parana and Paul G. Gores, Lawyers: DominadorCejalvo, Engineer; Carlos M. Madrazo, Chemist; Eugenio Antonio, Jr., Labor Leader and Chemist; Pedro T. Algarme, College Professor; and later, Oscar A. Quisumbing, Arturo A. Cruz, Physicians and Lt. Fernando D. Estampador. In the war fronts of Bataan and Mindanao, several sons of San Carlos made their supreme sacrifices. One of the most ill-fated son of San Carlos who saw action in Bataan fighting side by side with the Americans; wounded by gun fire; suffered "rifle-butt-strikes" on his chest by Japanese Soldiers, and was among the thousands of Filipinos and American Troops in the infamous "DEATH MARCH OF BATAAN", was a least known Philippine Scout Ranger "Dadoy Garcia". He was never recognized by the Philippine Government nor the US Government for his gallantry during the Second World War, although numerous attempts were made by the local Philippine-American Legion for his recognition. His War Service Records and Military Documents were lost in transition. In the early part of 1980, our Hero died of Tuberculosis - penniless, suffered humiliation, and with so much pain in his heart; but never regretfull of his bravery, particularly his service to United States Army fighting against the atrocities of the Japanese Imperial Army as member of the Philippine Scouts.In March 1945, San Carlos saw action, when the Philippine Commonwealth forces and local guerrilla units under the over-all command of Col. Ernesto S. Mata, attacked the Japanese garrison in the compound of San Carlos Milling Company and succeeded in driving away the Japanese Army, at the cost of the life of Lt. Alfredo Valdivia. Among those who survived to tell the story were: Capt. Epifanio D. Liberal, Capt. Dominador Justiniani, Capt. Porferio A. Villaflor, Lts. Teodulfo Limas, Crescencio C. Portuguez, Florencio C. Yap, Andres L. Arrogante, Nestorio L. Layumas, Federico Legaspina, Sgt. Simplicio Algarme, Capt. Eugenio Antonio, Jr., 2nd Lt. Mansueto D. Quijote, Sr. and some other enlisted men. The first post war election found the town a Liberal. In 1953, the Nacionalista wrested the power from the Liberals. The consensus of opinions has it that for the present, it is yet difficult to dethrone the local party in power. By Virtue of R.A. No. 2643, the Municipality of San Carlos was converted into the City of San Carlos on July 1, 1960. The City inherited from the Municipality numerous improvements hitherto unprecedented in the history of the town. The improvements were introduced by the last municipal administration under Mayor Sofronio Carmona. The usual experience of a new city during the transition period was fraught with crisis. The new City of San Carlos excepted from this rule. The effort exerted by Mayor Carmona in meeting the obligations of the city in the form of salaries of newly created offices and the implementation of WAPCO increases of the intermediate school teachers were overcome. ~Social Services~The Social Sector discusses the health, educational, social welfare, sports and recreation, housing and protective services concerns of the City.The social development program of Bacolod City focuses on the basic social services in support of the national government's thrusts with emphasis on poverty reduction and housing program for the squatters and homeless families.The major goal of this sector is: Accessible, effective and efficient social services to all Bacolenos through government support and community participation to achieve a better quality of life for all.Among the major programs and projects of the Social Sector are the following: · Reproductive Health and Family Planning Program · Gender Equality and Women Empowerment Program· Socialized Housing Project 2001-2010 · Construction and upgrading of health facilities · Acquisition of health equipment · Skills upgrading program · Public information and outreach program · Construction of Bacolod City College Building · Facilities, Equipment Acquisition Program · Protective Services Manpower and Resource Upgrading · Intensified Campaign Programs Against Drug Use · Institutional Development Program for Social Welfare · Street Children Program · Construction of Sports and Recreation Facilities · Sports and Recreation Program = Food Security and Environmental Protection Development Program = Priority: Infrastructure and investment program that will support Agricultural Development to ensure Food Security and Environmental Protection. 1.) Budget for Agriculture will be increased2.) Improve Provincial Land Use Program implementation3.) Food Security Program: * Increase capacity in rice and other basic food * Protect and preserve fresh water and marine fishing zone * Define shellfish farming areas * Support integrated pest management initiative * Support farm based technical demonstration projects * Develop local poultry and livestock industry * Provide incentives for fruit/vegetable farming Daan Lungsod Cave in Sitio Daan Lungsod is about 300 meters from the main highway. The cave measures 75 meters deep. Bagacay Cave is about 8 kilometers from the town proper. Mat weaving inside this cave has been a source of living of the residents. PalauBeach Resort offers overnight accommodations. It has a restaurant and it is accessible anytime of the day.Century-old Roman Catholic Church of Calatrava was built in year 1880. Situated in the town proper, it is the center of worship for all catholic devotees. Monkey Sanctuaryin Sitio Palinpinon, Barangay Pagumayon is home of hundreds of wild monkeys. These monkeys are people-friendly but very territorial in nature. They thrived on the food brought by visitors and tourists.-Your name's Joshua Sim -My Friendster Profile? heheh... you can type on you web browser

Suliranin ng administrasyong ramon magsaysay?

Ang ilan sa mga suliranin na hinaharap ng administrasyong Ramon Magsaysay ay ang korapsiyon sa pamahalaan, kahirapan, at kriminalidad. Bagaman nagtagumpay siya sa pagtugon sa ilang mga ito, tulad ng Kampanya Kontra Makupad na Nalalaspag (Moral Re-Armament Campaign), marami pa ring isyu ang kanyang pamahalaan ang pinagtuonang pansin.

History of antipolo?

ANTIPOLO HISTORYThe City of Antipolo lies approximately 29.30 km. east of Manila and is bounded on the North by the ton of Montalban, on the north-west by the towns of Marikina and San Mateo, on the east by the Province of Quezon, on the southeast by the towns of Tanay and Teresa and on the southwest by the towns of Taytay an Cainta. It is about 10 km. north to south and about 20 km. from east to west.The City was named after a tree locally known as Tipolo (Autocarpus Incisa), which was in abundance in the area at that time.The early written account of the city's history was recorded in 1578 by the Franciscan missionaries who came to Christianize the natives like the Dumagats. Early records referred to the natives as Tagal, Indians, and Blacks (the aetas). It is said that these missionaries built the church at Boso-boso.In 1591 the Jesuits replaced the Franciscans in Antipolo who organized the village into a parish. They built a chapel at Sitio Sta. Cruz. Among them were Fr. Pedro Chirino and Fr. Francisco Almarique. The same year, the first homily in Tagalog was delivered in a mass celebrated at what is now known as the "Pinagmisahan".In those years, the virgin forest of Antipolo covered most of its mountain ranges with varied tropical trees and wild life. There ere many springs supporting several waterfalls, the most popular of which is the Hinulugang Taktak.By 1601 there are about 3,000 Christians residing in Antipolo. At about the same period, the number of negritos significantly dwindled, moving deeper into the mountains. The missionaries tried to bring them back to the village by offering to then fertile lands to till. Father Almarique gave them all the services the Church can provide. The congregations known as La Anunciata composed of students and inhabitants continued their unified devotion to the Blessed Virgin by consistently celebrating the Feast of the Anunciation.On March 25, 1626 Governor Juan Nino de Tabora brought to the country from Acapulco, Mexico, the image of the Virgin and before he died, he bequeathed the image to the Jesuit Priest for the Antipolo Church. Tradition has it that the image was installed at Sitio Sta. Cruz and it is said that this was lost several times and each time was recovered on a Tipolo tree. Because of these unusual incidents, it was decided in 1632 to erect the church at that place under the administration of Fr. Juan de Salazar.In 1639, the Chinese revolted to protest the increase in taxes reaching the village of Antipolo and the church was burn to the ground by the rebels. Miraculously, the image was unharmed. The Virgin was taken to Sitio Ginapao and then brought to Cavite upon orders of the Governor General. It stayed in Cavite for 14 years.Ten years from the said incident was renamed Virgin of Peace and Good Voyage after which it traveled five more times to Acapulco, Mexico before it rested permanently in the town.In the meantime, the village of Antipolo became a town in 1650.In 1725, in a letter of Fr. Fray Gaspar de San Agustin, two Filipino secular priest were praised as comparable to any European priests. One of them was Don Bartolome Saguinsin, a native of Antipolo who became a rector of Quiapo District (outside Manila Walls).By 1850, the town was still part of the Province of Tondo. The Province was divided in two and some of the towns were placed under Manila while others were placed under the District of Morong. In 1853 Antipolo was formally placed under the district then known as Los Montes de San Mateo, which was later known as the District of Morong in 1857. The recollect priest took over the parish of Antipolo in 1864.It was during these years that the Virgin of Antipolo gained thousand upon thousands of devotees. Devotees from Manila and nearby towns and province flock to Antipolo on foot along mountain trails and springs. Most of them are fair-skinned and more civilized (the tagalogs). Some stayed and adopted Antipolo as their homes.Among the devotees was the young Jose Rizal and his mother.Civilization drove the natives further away into the mountains.Tradition also put it that when pestilence hit tons of Antipolo, Cainta and Taytay, the Virgin of Antipolo was taken upon advise of the Parish Priest to what is now known as Pinagmisahan. A mass was celebrated there and prayers to Jesus Christ were offered to stop the epidemic. It is said that the prayers were heard and the sufferings vanished.On December 27, 1874, Juan Sumulong was born of the spouses Policarpio Sumulong. Then Capitan Municipal of Antipolo and Arcadia Marquez. In the following year, Hacienda de Pinugay was placed under the jurisdiction of Bosoboso by a royal decree.When the Filipinos rose in revolt against the Spaniards, many Antipoleans joined the rebels. They had an encounter with the Spanish soldiers at Mt. Makatubong, a mountain within Antipolo, Juan Sumulong became the secretary of the revolutionaries in the province.Two months after the declaration by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo of Philippine Independence on June 12, 1898 at Kawit, Cavite, Antipolo formally joined the revolutionary government and it was made the capital of Morong. But when the country was occupied by the Americans on June 4, 1899 the revolutionary government was transferred to the town of Tanay.After the civil government was restored in 1901 by the Americans, Valentin Sumulong became the first Presidente (Alkalde) of the town. The province of Morong was renamed Rizal Province and some of the towns near Manila were made part of the province.The first public school was headed by James O'hara and in 1903, Antipolo, Teresa and Bosoboso were consilidated under Act No. 1942 with Antipolo as the center of government.On March 27, 1903 the Philippines Commission enacted Act No. 703 granting the Manila Railroad Company a franchise to operate a railway in Antipolo. The railway by 1906 started from Pasig up to Taytay-Cainta. Religious devotees walked from the end of the railway to Antipolo and the more affluent are carried hammocks called "Hamaka". The first train to reach Antipolo was on December 24, 1908.The population of Antipolo including Bosoboso was registered at 3,286 on March 2, 1903. As early as those years Banda 12. a brass band, already existed.The next Presidente of the town were Tranquilino Idan and Severino Oliveros. During their incumbencies in 1908 Antipolo was honored with the appointment of Juan Sumulong as the first Judge for land registration and later member of the Philippine Commission.Francisco Dimanlig and Ambrocio Masangkay also became Presidentes of the town. In 1913, the sitios of Mayamot and Bulao became part of Antipolo. After this Roberto de Jesus, Federico Asuncion and Sixto Pedracio served as Presidentes.The people of Antipolo lived a simple and traditional Pilipino lifestyle. Their culture and tradition included the celebrations of many religious and cultural festivities such as the Kapitan at Kapitana on Easter Sunday, the night serenades, the bayanihan, the praying of the Angelus, the reading of the passion of Christ during the lenten season and festivities on May and June. The association known as the Nuestra Senora Dela Anunciata, established many years back continue to practice many of these old traditions.January 1, 1919 under executive Act No. 57, Teresa was segregated from Antipolo.Not long after, roads were built connecting Taytay and Antipolo and public transportation became available. When Cornelio Lawis became mayor of the town, he improved the roadways by putting stones over them.The first town hall was erected in 1925 during the incumbency of Mayor Jose Carigma. Juan Sumulong was elected senator under Partido Demokrata and Marcelino Santos succeeded as mayor of Antipolo.For the first time the Virgin of Antipolo was brought to the Luneta and crowned on November 27, 1927.In 1929 German San Jose (Gerry Brandy) of Malate, Manila, composed the song ANTIPOLO (Tayo na sa Antipolo) which immediately made national attention. In 1930 Pascual Oliveros became mayor of Antipolo and electric services reached the town proper.In the field of Education in 1930s Juliana F. Torres, Serapio H. Santos, Gabriel Francisco, Clemente V. Rivera, Konsehal Juan Torres, Sr. Honorato B. Aranda, Briccio Reillo and Eusebio Simeon rose to prominence.Also, it was during this period that the Maytime Fiesta Pavillion at General Luna Street and the Hinulugang Taktak Hotel at San Jose Street were erected.During the Second World War (1941-1945) many able-bodied men from Antipolo joined the Philippine Scout and the USAFFE and fought in the bloody battle of Bataan.Two guerrilla units continued the struggle during the Japanese occupation. They were the HUNTERS ROTC under Miguel Ver and Terry Adevoso and the MARKING FIL-AMERICAN TROOP which was established and led by Marcos Villa Agustin more popularly known under the name Brig. Gen. Agustin Marking.Many inhabitants were tortured and killed by the Japanese, among them are: Mayor Pascual Oliveros and son Reynaldo, Padre Eusebio Carreon; Padre Ariston Ocampo; Sis. Ma. Elizabeth Cagulanas, RVM; Sis. Ma. Consuelo Recio, RVM; Antonio Masangkay, and Alfonso Oliveros.The liberation of Antipolo from the Japanese forces was bloody and devastating. On February 17, 1945 Antipolo was heavily bombarded by American planes. In the midst of widespread conflagration and heavy civilian casualties, the people of Antipolo evacuated to Sitio Kulaike and up to the tons of Angono, Santolan, and Marikina. They brought with them the Virgin of Antipolo courageously carried on the shoulders of Procopio Angeles.The bombings on March 6-7, 1945 destroyed the church building and after twelve days of battle the American 43rd Infantry Division liberated the town on March 12, 1945.The people returned to the town and slowly rebuilt their lives from the ashes of war. Led by Mayor Manuel Serranillo, Padre Francisco Avendano, Jose Lawis and Leoncio Anclote, the people built a temporary church and returned the Virgin of Antipolo from the Quiapo church on October 15, 1945.The people gallantly rebuilt their homes and their lives. Devotees started to flock to the town and on May 6, 1947, the first procession of the Virgin o Antipolo was held starting at the hills of Pinagmisahan headed by Padre Francisco Avendano.On November 11, 1947 Mayor Isaias Tapales was inagurated as mayor of the town.In 1948 a national committee was formed to undertake a nationwide fund raising campaign to build the Cathedral of Antipolo. The committee was headed by the former First Lady Aurora Quezon and Padre Francisco Avendano. The same year, Lorenzo Sumulong was elected Congressman and the construction of the Circumferential Road was began.It was about this time that the Iglesia Ni Kristo came to Antipolo.On June 15, 1952, Hinulugang Taktak was proclaimed a national park under Presidential Proclamation No. 330 of then President Elpidio Quirino and on January 14, 1854, the Bishops of the Philippines proclaimed the Cathedral of Antipolo as the official shrine of the Virgin of Antipolo.In 1958, Francisco Sumulong was elected Congressman of the Second District of Rizal. The same year, the road from Kay Tikling to the Cainta Junction was opened and the first residential subdivision in Antipolo, the Beverly Hills Subdivision, was inagurated. Also, an area in the town proper which used to be a railroad station became popularly known as "siyete y media" because the first houses were seven and a house remained halfway finished.In 1960, the poblacion widened. The Sumulong Highway was constructed and the people from outlying towns migrated and occupied the hills and mountain sides.The natural springs and tributary creeks of the Hinulugang Taktak were littered with waste affecting the falls itself.Little by little, civilization overtook the culture of the residents. Only a few continued to work I the fields. Wild animals which used to live in the forest and mountains slowly disappeared with the denudation of the forest and the loss of the trees. Even the native traditions were threatened.The Juan Sumulong High School under Mrs. Trinidad S. Jornacion was established followed by the Antipolo Municipal High School and the Our Lady of Peace School.In the '70s the Marikina-Infanta Road better known as the Marcos Highway was constructed traversing the mountains of Antipolo. The Cogeo Village came to being and a large portion of the town was proposed for Lungsod Silangan. The barrios, then known only as Uno, Dos, Tres and Cuatro were renamed Barangay San Roque, San Jose, San Isidro and Dela Paz.Msgr. Gaudencio Rosales became the parish priest of the Catholic Church and Jose R. Oliveros was re-elected Municipal Mayor with Felix B. Marinas as the Vice Mayor. They completed the construction of the Municipal Town Hall.The Antipolo Elementary School, a public school, became the Juan Sumulong Elementary school and several school annexes were established with their own school principals.The civic organization at that period were: the Lions Club, Kiwanis Club of Antipolo, Rotary Club, Antipolo Cultural and Historical Society, Inc., Antipolo Foundation for Arts Culture and Ecology, and others.The most Rev. Protacio G. Gungon, D.D. assumed the position of parish priest of the town and when the Diocese of Antipolo was created on June 25, 1983, he became the first bishop of the diocese.Meanwhile, Francisco Sumulong and Emigdio "Ding" Tanjuatco were elected representatives to Batasang Pambansa.When the EDSA revolt broke out in 1986, many residents joined the people's revolt at the EDSA after President Corazon Aquino was installed as President of the revolutionary government, the town officials were replaced. Named Office-In-Charge was Francisco de Jesus while Felix B. Marinas remained as Vice Mayor who became the OIC after the death of De Jesus. Before the elections on January 18, 1988, Marinas was replaced as OIC by Dr. Rodrigo Ambas.In 1988 Mayor Daniel S. Garcia was elected and remained as Mayor of Antipolo until the expiration of his term in 1998.Hinulugang Taktak was declared a national historical shrine under republic Act 6964 sponsored by then Congressman Francisco "Komong" Sumulong on September 18, 1990.By 1995, the population census of Antipolo showed a stunning 345,000 population.On February 13, 1998 then President Fidel V. Ramos signed into law the bill jointly sponsored by Congressmen Gilbert "Bibit" Duavit and Egmidio "Ding" Tanjuatco, making the Municipality of Antipolo into a component city of the Province of Rizal. Republic Act No. 8505 became the charter of the City of Antipolo. On April 04, 1998, the voters of Antipolo ratified the new political status of Antipolo in a plebiscite called for the purpose and Antipolo acquired corporate existence as the City of Antipolo.Following its new status, in the election held on May 11, 1998, Angelito C. Gatlabayan was elected first elected City Mayor of Antipolo and Agripino G. Garcia, as his Vice Mayor. Victor Sumulong , son of the illustrious Filipino senator, Lorenzo Sumulong was elected Congressman of the lone congressional district of Antipolo.darkme..,;))