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The two basic dynamic indications in music are:

  • p or piano, meaning "soft".
  • ƒ or forte, meaning "strong".

More subtle degrees of loudness or softness are indicated by:

  • mp, standing for mezzo-piano, meaning "moderately soft".
  • , standing for mezzo-forte, meaning "moderately strong".

Beyond f and p, there are also

  • pp, standing for "pianissimo", and meaning "very soft",
  • ƒƒ, standing for "fortissimo", and meaning "very strong",
    • al niente: to nothing; fade to silence. Sometimes written as "n"
    • calando: becoming smaller
    • calmando: become calm
    • crescendo: becoming stronger
    • dal niente: from nothing; out of silence
    • decrescendo or diminuendo: becoming softer
    • fortepiano: loud and accented and then immediately soft
    • fortissimo piano: very loud and then immediately soft
    • in rilievo: in relief (French en dehors: outwards); indicates that a particular instrument or part is to play louder than the others so as to stand out over the ensemble. In the circle of Arnold Schoenberg, this expression had been replaced by the letter "H" (for German, "Hauptstimme"), with an added horizontal line at the letter's top, pointing to the right, the end of this passage to be marked by the symbol " ".
    • perdendo or perdendosi: losing volume, fading into nothing, dying away
    • mezzoforte piano: moderately strong and then immediately soft
    • morendo: dying away (may also indicate a tempo change)
    • marcato: stressed, pronounced
    • pianoforte: soft and then immediately strong
    • sforzando piano: with marked and sudden emphasis, then immediately soft
    • sotto voce: in an undertone (whispered or unvoiced)[6]
    • smorzando: dying away
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