Zarzuela (Spanish pronunciation: [θarˈθwela]) is a Spanish lyric-dramatic genre that alternates between spoken and sung scenes, the latter incorporating operatic and popular song, as well as dance. The etymology of the name is not totally certain but some propose it may derive from the name of a Royal hunting lodge, the Palacio de la Zarzuela near Madrid, where, allegedly, this type of entertainment was first presented to the court. The palace was named after the place called "La Zarzuela" because of the profusion of brambles (zarzas) which grew there and so the festivities held within the walls became known as Zarzuelas.
There are two main forms of zarzuela: Baroque zarzuela (c.1630-1750), the earliest style, and Romantic zarzuela(c.1850-1950), which can be further divided into two. Main sub-genres are género grande and género chico, although other sub-divisions exist.
Zarzuela spread to the Spanish colonies, and many Hispanic countries - notably Cuba - developed their own traditions. There is also a strong tradition in the Philippines where it is also known as zarzuelta. Other regional and linguistic variants in Spain includes the Basque zartzuela and the Catalan sarsuela.
A masque-like musical theatre had existed in Spain since the time of Juan del Encina. The zarzuela genre was innovative in giving a dramatic function to the musical numbers, which were integrated into the argument of the work. Dances and choruses were incorporated as well as solo and ensemble numbers, all to orchestral accompaniment.
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