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ito ang paghahanap ng matutuluyan ni joseph at maria

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Q: What is panunuluyan and pananapatan?
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What is tagalog meaning of panunuluyan?

Panunuluyan is pagsuyo sa kasintahan.

What is the meaning of panunuluyan?

panunuluyan is the entering of ones home and where you can relax if it is raining

What is the meaning of pananapatan in the term of music?


What is the meaning of panunuluyan in MAPEH?

Ang panunuluyan ay ang mga kantang nanunuluyan sa isa babae ang isang lalaki.........................................................................................................................................................maraming salamat po .:) always study 4 your education thats all thank u very much......

Dula ng panunuluyan?

Ito ay dulang tungkol sa kapanganakan ni Jesu Kristo.

Ano ang ibig sabihin ng panunuluyan?

ang pagpupunta sa isang bahay at sa isang bahay

What is the difference of Balitaw Mayor and Balitaw Menor?

Balitaw Major is derived from the graceful French-European slow waltz.It is lively and humorous while the Balitaw Menor is a Visayan love song (Balitaw major is also Visayan) a harana,a Philippine serenade or pananapatan . It is also called Dansa Pilipino.:)

Buod ng huling hiling hinaing at halinghing?

fictionHuling Hiling, Hinaing at Halinghing ni Hermano Husengni Pat V. VillafuerteHuling Hiling: IskuwalaNAGSISIMULANG MAGKULAY-GINTO ang dati'y luntiang punla na nilinang ng mapagpalang-kamay ng mga anak-bukid nang huli kong masilayan si Hermano Huseng, pagkaraan ng ilang taong pinaghiwalay kami ng panahon at ng pagkakataon. Noo'y kanyang kasibulan - maglalabimpitong tag-araw ng kanyang buhay. Malapad ang dibdib, maumbok ang siksik na mga braso, masigla at malakas. Pagmulat ng kanyang mga mata kasabay ng pagputok ng araw, isang katangi-tanging ritwal ang pinagkakaabalahan niyang gawin - ang talunin at magpaikut-ikot sa mahabang bakal na ang magkabilang dulo'y natatalian ng makapal na lubid at nakabuhol sa walong talampakang kawayan. Parang binabaluktot na ratan ang kanyang katawan tuwing itinataas-ibinababa ang pantay niyang mga paa, at ito'y nagmimustulang lagas na dahon ng banaba habang inililipad ng hangin. Pagkaraan ng ilang sandali'y pantay ang mga paang lulundagin niya ang lupa habang tuwid at magkapantay ang kanyang mga kamay na nakaturo sa langit. Nganganga't ibubuga ang nakaipong hangin sa malapad niyang dibdib saka sisimulang punasin ng kupasing lavacara ang namumuong mga pawis sa kanyang noo, pisngi, liig, batok at braso. Isang seremonya ko na ring gumising nang maaga kapag nauulinigan ko na ang kanyang mga yabag. At sa munting bilog na butas ng sawaling dingding ay lihim kong pinagmamasdan ang kanyang kahubdan. Ang malapad niyang dibdib at ang maumbok at siksik niyang mga braso. At ako'y nakadarama ng naiibang sigla. Ng naiibang pangitain. Ng di-maipaliwanag na damdamin.Masasabing kababata ko siya bagamat walong taon na ako nang sumulpot siya sa sangmaliwanag. Halos nagkakaumpugan ang dingding at bubong ng aming mga tahanan kaya't nasaksihan ko ang kanyang paglaki't pagbibinata. Bunso siya sa apat na magkakapatid na pulos lalaki ng mag-asawang Tata Pulo at Nana Docia, samantalang bugtong na anak ako ng mag-asawang maggugulay. Ngunit ang natatandaan ko, mula nang ako'y magkaisip, siya lang ang nilikhang laman ng aking isip . . . pagsikat at pagtirik ng araw. Kaya nga ba't sa tuwing magdadapit-hapon, sa tuwing aangkinin ng makakapal na ulap ang hilahod na kapaligiran ng buong nayon, ay itinuturing kong isang walang kahandaang kamatayan ang sandaling iyon para sa akin.Kapwa kami lalang at lumaki sa Tungkong Bato, isang natutulog na baryo sa San Antonio. Iisang Impong Gande ang nagpaanak sa amin. Iisang bisita* ang pinagdalhan sa amin upang maging kristiyano. Iisang Tata Roman ang nagpanguya sa amin ng usbong na bayabas upang pagkatapos ay bawasan ng isang kapirasong laman angpinakatatago naming "kamyas" sa katawan. Iisang baku-bakong landas sa gilid ng bundok ang aming nilalakbay patungo sa yari sa anim na raang kuwadro metrong pandayan ng karunungan. Ngunit habang nagpapalit ang mga araw at nagsisimula kaming mangarap para sa papaunlad na buhay ay nagkakaroon ng pagbabago sa aming paniniwala at ideolohiya. Bunga ng maghapong pakikinig ng mga balitang panglokal (walang nakararating na dyaryo sa aming nayon) ay higit na nagiging malalim ang pananaw sa buhay ni Hermano Huseng. Higit siyang naging maurirat sa mga isyung pulitikal. Higit siyang nagiging mapusok at marahas.Sa mga bagong nakikilala ni Hermano Huseng ay hindi nakakaligtaang itanong sa kanya kung ano ang kahulugan ng Hermano na nakakapit sa kanyang pangalan. Bukod sa kanyang magulang at mga kapatid, kami nina Tatang at Inang ang nakaaalam ng lihim na alamat. Simula sa unang araw ng Mayo hanggang katapusan ng buwan ay ipinuprusisyon ng mga taga-Tungkong Bato ang imahen ni San Isidro, ang patron ng mga magsasaka. Bawa't gabi'y isinasagawa ang "panunuluyan". Isang pamilya ang "umaampon" sa imahen. Ang bunsong anak na lalaki ay tinatawag na Hermano at kung babae ang bunsong anak, ito'y tinatawag na Hermana. Ipinaghahanda ng Hermano o Hermana ang pagdating ng kanilang "ampon". Ang pangunahing pinto at mga bintana ay ginagayakan ng iba't ibang ani - palay, mais, suman at iba pa. Dadasalan at aawitan ang "bagong panauhin". Isang buong araw itong manunuluyan at pagsapit ng gabi ay ibang pamilya na naman ang "aampon" sa imahen. Simula nang manuluyan kina Tata Pulo at Nana Docia ang patron ng mga magsasaka ay ikinapit na kay Huseng (mula sa pangalang Jose) ang salitang Hermano. Mula noon, ang anak na tumangging humawak ng pait, katam, lagare at martilyo ay tinawag ng Hermano Huseng.Anluwage ang ama ni Hermano Huseng. Isang maestro karpintero ng kanyang panahon. Namana niya ito sa kanyang ama na namana naman ng huli sa ama ng kanyang ama. Sa maikling salita, angkan ng mga anluwage ang pinag-ugatang lahi ni Hermano Huseng. Sinasabi ng mga naunang mamamayan ng Tungkong Bato na halos ang buong pamayanan ng nayon ay dumaan sa katam, martilyo't lagare ng angkan ni Hermano Huseng. Ang kauna-unahang bisita*, bahay, paaralan, klinika, ospital, palengke, bahay-sanglaan, bangko, panaderya, punerarya, tulay at palikurang-bayan sa Tungkong Bato; ang lumang kapitolyong pinagkutaan ng mga Kastila sa karatig-bayan; at ang pinakamamahaling ataul ng Funerarya Lorenzo sa San Antonio ay nagawa dahil sa mapagpalang mga kamay ng kanunununuan ni Hermano Huseng. Kaya't para sa sinaunang mga mamamayan ng Tungkong Bato, kasama na ng iba pang nayon at bayan ng San Antonio ay institusyon na ang lahing pinag-ugatan ni Hermano Huseng. Kaya't hindi dapat pagtakhan kung sakali mang makarinig si Hermano Huseng ng masasakit pananalita mula sa kanyang ama sa tuwing tatangkain niyang putulin ang kinagisnang tradisyon. Tanging siya, sa apat na magkakapatid na lalaki ang hindi sumasama sa ama kapag may batarisan o kapag nangingibang-bayan para mag-anluwage. Mas ginusto pa nitong magsulat ng mga tula. Mas kinahiligan pa nitong mag-alaga't magpalaki ng mga itik at bibe. At pagkaraang pakainin ang mga ito, pagkatapos ang sabay-sabay na pag-iingay ng mga ito ay uupo siya sa papag na nasa ilalim ng punong santol at magsisimulang magsulat. Nakatutuwang ako ang kanyang naging unang tagabasa at kritiko.Ang unang dalawang saknong ng kauna-unahang tula ni Hermano Huseng na pinabasa at ipinasuri niya sa akin ay naganap isang hapon sa ilalim ng isang punong santol. Isang hapong ayon sa kanya'y tamang panahon ng pagpapalayang-diwa:At sapagkat ang mabuhay sa daigdigay walang katapusang pagkukumagkagsa nakagapos na proseso ng kapagalan,bawat lakad-pasulongbawat likong pakaliwa't pakananbawat yapak-pabalikay may pagsuko sa loob ng ating sarili.nahahakbangan ang pusonatatalisuran ang isipngunit nahahawan ang landaspara sa kaluluwang pagal sa paghahanap ng katotohanansa di-madalumat na katotohanansa pagitan ng maraming pagtango't pag-ilingsa pader ng di-mabilang na pagpigil at pagtutol."Parang galit ka sa mundo," ang tanging nasabi ko.Ang akala ko'y iyon ang magiging simula ng isang magandang yugto sa buhay ko. Hindi pala. Pagkaraan ng ilang linggo'y naibalita niya sa akin na kinumbinsi siya ng kapatid ng kanyang hipag na magtrabaho sa konstruksyon ng kauna-unahang mall na maipatatayo para sa mga Nueva Ecijano. Ito'y nangangahulugang sa lungsod ng Cabanatuan na siya maninirahan, at paminsan-minsan na lamang siya luluwas sa Tungkong-Bato. Ito na rin marahil ang magiging simula ng aking kalungkutan. Ng aking kamatayan.Naging suliranin ni Hermano Huseng ang magkakasunod na taong pag-aasawa ng tatlo niyang kapatid. Papatanda na ang kanyang ama at wala nang makakatuwang sa pag-aanluwage. Ang kanyang kuya ay nakapangasawa ng isang Sebuwanang namasukang katulong sa tahanan ni Meyor. Sa munisipyo na nagtatarabaho ang panganay na kapatid. Nang sumunod na taon ay itinanan ng kanyang diko ang dalawang taon nitong nobya na taga-Aluwa. Sa bayan na ng babae nanirahan ang mag-asawa. May minanang kiskisan ng palay ang babae nang mamatay ang mga magulang nito at ito ang kanilang pinagkikitaan. Pagkaraan ng isang taon, nagpaalam ang kanyang sangko na magpapakasal na rin sa kasintahan nitong nasa kabilang ibayo. Maestra sa isang publikong paaralan ang napangasawa nito. Nagtayo ng maliit na tindahan ang mag-asawa at ito ang kanilang pinalalago. Siya naman ay sa pinagtatrabahuhan na namamalagi. Dalawang beses sa isang buwan na lamang siya kung umuwi sa Tungkong Bato.Nagsasalansan ako ng mga bakawan sa silong ng bahay nang maulinigan kong nag-uusap sina Tata Pulo at Nana Docia."Pa'no tayo mabubuhay kung ang bawat nagpapakumpuni ng bahay ay pabatares? Ang pangingibang-bayan na lamang ang atupagin mo," tinig iyon ni Nana Docia."Ang tao namang ire. Ako nga abay* ye* bigyan mo ng kahihiyan. Halos kamag-anakan natin ang mga nagpapabatares. Si Madeng ba ye pagbabayarin 'ta? Alam mo namang nag-iisa sa buhay at di-nakapag-asawa. Mabuti't nakumpuni ko ang bubong ng kanyang poltri bago dumating ang malakas na bagyo. Tatanggapin ko ba ang inaabot ni Kapitan Ontong gayong halos siya ang nagligtas at bumuhay sa 'tin no'ng panahong pasukin tayo ng mga taong-labas? Ay, tinamaan ka ng lintik. Baka ni isa mang tagarito ye walang dumamay sa 'yo sakaling dumating ang huling subo ko?" tugon ni Tata Pulo.Bagamat itinuturing na pinakamahusay kumarkula ng mga kahoy at kawayan kahit hindi nakatuntong man lamang ng unang grado sa paaralang-bayan, walang naaksayang gamit ang ama ni Hermano Huseng. Maging ang mga pinagtabasan at pinagkatamang kahoy ay kanyang nagagamit sa ibang paraan. Ang kayang katwiran, "Dapat panghinayangan ang alinmang bagay na natatapon. Ang lahat ng 'yan ay may paggagamitan." Pag-uwi mula sa pinaggawaan, sunung-sunong niya ang mga lumabis na pira-pirasong yero, kahoy at kawayan. Maayos na isasalansan sa silong ng bahay. Dudukutin sa bulsa ang naipon at nahinging mga pako na may iba't ibang sukat at isisilid sa isang lumang lata, kasama ng naipon ding maliliit na lapis na bagong tasa.Isang magdadapit-hapon, kasagsagan ng ulan nang dumating mula sa pambabatares si Tata Pulo. Nanginginig ang kanyang buong katawan. Inaapoy ng lagnat. Matapos palitan ng tuyong kamiseta ang kanyang basang damit, banyusan ng mainit na tubig ang kanyang mukha, mga braso't binti; at medyasan ang mga paa, pinahigop siya ni Nana Docia ng isang tasa ng mainit na kape."Iwasan ninyong maglabas ni isa mang sentimo kapag sumakabilang-buhay ako. Hilingin mo na lang sa ating mga anak na gamitin ang mga nakatambak na kahoy sa silong para sa aking kabaong. Ibig kong sila ang gumawa ng aking himlayan," ang bilin ni Tata Pulo. "Isama mo sa aking puntod ang mga gamit ko. Tutal, pinutol na nila ang kinalakhan kong tradisyon. Sayang . . . Sayang . . ."Pasungaw na ang araw nang tuluyang ipinikit ng Maestro Karpintero ang kanyang mga mata. Isang nangungulilang kamatayan ang nasaksihan ko nang umagang iyon.Magtatanghali na nang magkakasunod na dumating ang apat na anak ni Tata Pulo, kasa-kasama ang asawa't anak ng mga ito; maliban kay Hermano Huseng na nananatiling binata. Pinasok ng magkakapatid ang silong, namili at naglabas ng mga kahoy habang inilalabas ni Nana Docia ang mga gamit sa pag-aanluwage ni Tata Pulo. Ngunit . . ."Bakit ba pahihirapan pa natin ang ating katawan sa paggawa ng kabaong? Maaari naman tayong kumuha ng serbisyo sa Lorenzo?" tinig iyon ng panganay."Saka may kalumaan na ang mga kahoy na ito. Takpan man natin ng makapal na pintura'y lalabas din ang tunay na kayo," tinig iyon ng pangalawa."Mag-ambag-ambag na lang tayo. Kumuha tayo ng magandang kabaong sa Lorenzo," tinig naman iyon ng pangatlo. "Saka paghati-hatiin na rin natin iyong kanyang mga gamit.""Ngunit ang hiling ng inyong ama ay . . ."Halos papalubog na ang araw nang dumating ang panghabang-buhay na higaan ng pinakamatandang anluwage ng buong bayan ng San Antonio. Napagpasyahan ng magkakapatid na ilibing na kinabukasan ang ama."Wala naman tayong mga kamag-anak na hinihintay. Bakit kailangang patagalin pa ang libing? Pare-pareho tayong may pamilya na dapat asikasuhin," tinig iyon ng panganay."At may kabuhayan tayong dapat tutukan. Malakas pa naman sa panahong ito ang kiskisan. Sang-ayon ako kay Kuya na mailibing na agad si Ama," tinig iyon ng pangalawa."Ako rin. Hindi kami kailangang magtagal dito. Si Luming ay may turo sa bayan. Pinilit ko nga lamang lumiban sa klase ngayon," tinig iyon ng pangatlo.Kinabukasan, inihatid namin sa kanyang huling hantungan ang labi ni Tata Pulo. Mangilan-ngilan lamang ang nakipaglibing. Ni hindi sumipot ang mga taong natulungan ng matandang anluwage. Payak na libing ito para sa isang henyo ng paggawa. At sa paglisan ng apat na magkakapatid ay baon nila ang naiwang yaman ng amang anluwage: Martilyo ang pinili ng panganay, lagare ang inangkin ng pangalawa, katam ang kinuha ng pangatlo at iskuwala ang tanging hiling ng bunsong si Hermano Huseng sa kanyang ina."Bakit iskuwala?" ang tanong ko kay Hermano Huseng habang inihahatid ko siya sa sakayan."Hindi ako kailanman nakatulong kay Ama sa panahon ng kanyang pag-aanluwage. Sa mga gamit ni Ama, ang iskuwala ang hindi na gaanong ginagamit sa panahong ito hindi tulad ng martilyo, lagare at katam," ang sagot ni Hermano Huseng. "Ito lang ang huling hiling ko, masaya na ako para kay Ama."Huling Hinaing: KalatasPAPALAPIT NA ANG BAGYO sa Gitnang Luzon at nagsimula nang magsilikas ang ilang pamilyang taga_Tarlac at Pampanga sa kanilang mga kamag-anakan sa ilang kalapit-bayan ng Nueva Ecija. Katulong ni Tatang, sinimulan na naming suhayan ang aming nalulugmok ng bahay habang unti-unti ang inaani ni Inang ang mga gulay sa tumana*. Kinulong ko na rin ang mga alagang itik ni Hermano Huseng na siya kong naging libangan at tagapagpaalala ng aking itinatagong damdamin sa nagmamay-ari niyon. Magdadalawang taon nang nailibing si Tata Pulo at mag-iisang taon nang namayapa si Nana Docia. Tanging ng pangalawang anak na lamang ng matanda ang nakarating sa libing nito. Balitang nagtatago ang panganay na anak dahil nakadispalko ng salapi sa munisipyo at ang pangatlong anak naman ay balitang nangibang-bayan. Samantala, walang makapagsabi kung nasaan si Hermano Huseng. May nagsasabing nasa Maynila at namamasukan bilang weyter. May nagbabalita namang nakasama ito sa lumubog na barko patungong Cebu. Ngunit malaki ang kutob kong siya'y buhay. Iba ang nadarama ng isang umiibig . . . nang lihim."Pag-aari na pala ng mga Intsik ang halos ikatlong bahagi ng Tungkong Bato. Taga-Taiwan . . . Taiwan nga ba 'yon? Mula sa hanggahan ng ilog hanggang sa kawayanan. Sakop ang lupa natin, Ingga, pati na'ng ating tumana," tinig iyon ni Tatang. "Pagtatayuan daw ng pabrika."Iyon ang dahilan ng pakikipagpulong ni Alkalde sa mga taga-Tungkong-Bato sa tanggapan ni Kapitan no'ng isang gabi. Kabilang kami ni Tatang sa mga dumalo. Sa simula'y kinaringgan ng mga pagtutol, ngunit nang malauna'y may mangilan-ngilang sumang-ayon nang ipahayag ni Alkaldeng "Walang ibang magtatrabaho sa konstruksyon kundi mga taga-San Antonio lamang. Kapag natapos ang proyekto'y kayo pa rin ang magtatrabaho sa pabrika. Malaking tulong 'yon sa inyong kabuhayan. Huwag kayong mag-alala. Tutumbasan ng salapi ang alinmang pag-aaring masasagasaan, maging ito'y bahay o lupang sakahan."Isang gabing pumapagaspas ang mga dahong anahaw ay ginambala ng pagtulog ko ang sunud-sunod na pagkahol ng aso at pag-aalburuto ng mga itik at bibe ni Hermano Huseng. Pakiwari ko'y pinasok na naman ng mga taong-labas ang iniwanang bahay ni Hermano Huseng, katulad no'ng buhay pa si Tata Pulo. Bagama't may isang metro ang distansya, katapat lamang ng higaan ko ang pintuan ng ibinandonadong bahay; kaya't dinig na dinig ko ang kakaibang langitngit ng pintong kawayan habang sumasabay sa malakas na hihip ng hangin. Bukas ang mga matang hinintay ko ang pangyayaring maaaring maganap. Pagkaraan ng ilang sandali'y muling lumangitngit ang pintong kawayan kasunod ang papalapit na mga yabag. Sandaling huminto, na sa pakiwari lo'y sa tapat ng aking kinahihigan. Mayamaya'y muli kong narinig ang mga yabag, ngunit papalayo hanggang sa mawala't tanging ang sunud-sunod na pagaspas na lamang ng mga dahong anahaw ang aking narinig.Hindi ako gaanong nakatulog ng gabing iyon kaya't nakasungaw na sa bintana ang nag-iinit na araw nang ako'y bumangon. Nakapag-init na ng kape si Inang at kinukumpuni na ni Tatang ang bubong na sa wari ko'y dinaanan ng malakas na hangin. Agad kong tinungo ang bahay ni Hermano Huseng. Iginala ko ang paningin sa buong kabahayan. Walang nabago. Walang tanda ng paglapastangan sa naiwang alaala ni tata Pulo, ni Nana Docia at ni Hermano Huseng. Naroon pa rin at nananatili ang larawan ng sinaunang tradisyon na hinubdan ng maraming paghihirap, pagtitiis, pangungulila at pangangarap. Pinasok ng kakaibang lamig ang katawan ko, at marahil pati na ang kaluluwa ko, nang makita ko sa ibabaw ng mesa ang isang bagay na ni sa panaginip ay hindi ko inaasahang makikita: ang iskuwala ni Hermano Huseng!Paglabas ko ng bahay, sinundan ko ang mga yapak sa putikang lupa hanggang sa gilid ng aming bahay, katapat ng aking hinihigaan. Isang nakarolyong papel ang nakita kong nakaipit sa kapirasong butas ng dingding: Binasa ko ang nakalahad:i. Sama-samang pagsigawSa langit nakatunghay,Sama-samang pagkilosSa lupa nakalaan.ii. Dugo ang itinitikSa telang inuusig,Silakbo yaong himigNg pusong humihibik.iii. Bawat awit at tulaMay tarak ng pagpuksaBawat ningas ay sigaSa pugon ng pagluksa.Kayat ngayon na ang panahon para hubdan ang nakamaskarang mukha ng lipunang pag-aari ng mapagbalat-kayong mga dayuhan! Ipagtanggol ang karapatan ng mga aping manggagawa! Isulong ang demokrasyang pipigil sa mapagsamantala't mapanlait na naghaharing uri! Mabuhay ang tunay na kasarinlang makapipigil sa karukhaan ng sambayanang Pilipino! Isulong ang pambansang pakikibaka!Sa likod ng kalatas ay nakasaad ang ganito: Nasa kalatas na ito ang aking hinaing. Pag-aralan mo ang isinasaad ng kalatas at ipaliwanag ang kahulugan sa ating mga kanayon. Nasa loob ng munting baul ang mga polyeto, kasama ang mga kalatas na katulad nito. Ipamudmod mo sa ating mga kanayon. Ito lang ang huling hiling ko, masaya na ako para sa bayan.Huling Halinghing: KasalPARANG HINATULAN NG ISANG MABAGSIK NA SUMPA ang buong lalawigan ng Nueva Ecija nang salantain ito nang halos maglilimang buwang tagtuyot. Nangagyuko ang mga uhay sa pananim. Nangabitak ang dating matabang lupa. Nangarilang ang buong palayan. Nangamatay ang maraming hayop at halaman. Nangagkasakit ang maraming bata. Lumaganap ang iba't ibang uri ng sakit at epidemyang kumitil ng maraming buhay. Nangagsara ang ilang negosyong pang-agrikultura sa Gapan at San Isidro. Nangatigil ang ilang makina ng mga pabrika sa Jaen at San Leonardo. Binawi ng ilang negosyante't imbestor ang pakikipagkalakalan sa Gapan at Lungsod ng Cabanatauan. Isa nang disyerto ang Tungkong Bato. Ito ang nilalaman ng ulo ng balitang nakasaad sa Ang Nueva Ecijano, pahayagang lokal ng lalawigan, dala ng isang kasama namin sa kilusan, isang hapong siya'y bumaba sa kabayanan. Kung bakit at paano ako napahinuhod ni Hermano Huseng na mamundok at sumapi sa kanilang kilusan ay bunga ng aking lihim na pagtatangi sa kanya. Pagsaping ang naging bunga'y ang mapangahas na pagtatapat ko kina Tatang at Inang ng aking tunay na pagkatao at iniingatang lihim. Pagtakwil ang ipinabaon sa akin nina Tatang nang lisanin ko ang Tungkong Bato upang sumamang mamundok kay Hermano Huseng. Pagtakwil na dadalhin nila hanggang sa hukay, nang hindi ko nakakamit ang kanilang kapatawaran."Patawad, Tatang . . . Patawad, Inang . . . Patawad . . ."ANG PAGYURAK SA AKING DANGAL bilang tao ang matinding dahilan ng pag-anib ko sa kilusan, pangalawa lamang ang nadarama ko para kay Hermano Huseng. Nagsisimula na noon ang pagtutuyot, habang isinasalansan ko ang mga polyetong ipinagkatiwala sa akin ni Hermano Huseng ay tatlong armadong lalaking nakauniporme ng militar ang walang kaabug-abog na pumasok sa aming bahay. Sa pagitan ng aming pagmamakaawa at pagpupumiglas laban sa kanilang pananakot at pananakit ay walang habag na iginapos nila sina Tatang at Inang."NPA ka raw?" anang isa."Hindi, sino'ng maysabi sa inyong NPA ako?" ang nahihintakutan kong tugon."Napangiti sila sa uri ng tinig na kanilang narinig. At sila'y tuluyang naghagikhikan."Ibang putahe pala 'to, eh," ang puna ng pinakamatanda sa pangkat. "Makinis . . . Mas maganda pa sa misis ko, Pare."Gumuhit sa lalim ng gabi ang nakababasag na halakhak."Pinulong mo raw ang mga kanayon mo at nagpamudmod ka ng mga polyetong maka-kaliwa," ang sabi ng isa. Palinga-linga. Waring may hinahanap."Hindi totoo 'yan," ang pagkakaila ko."Kung hindi'y ano'ng ibig sabihin ng mga polyetong ito? Bakit nasa pag-iingat mo?" Sinu-sino kayo? Sino ang lider ninyo? Ikaw?" Galit ang tinig."Hindi . . . Hindi ko alam ang sinasabi mo," ang sabi ko.Pinalibutan ako ng tatlo. Isang malakas na suntok sa sikmura ang nagpapilipit sa akin. Isa-isa nilang hinubad ang aking damit, pati pantalon at pati ang nasa loob ng aking pantalon. Isang suntok sa mukha ang nagpatigil sa aking paghiyaw. Ibinaba ng kaharap ko ang kanyang pantalon pati ang panloob na tumatakip sa kanyang kahubdan. Inilabas ang nasa loob niyon. Sapilitan niya akong pinaluhod, hawak ang aking buhok, marahas niyang ibinuka ang aking bibig. At . . . Taas-baba . . . Taas-baba . . . Taas-baba . . . Sumunod ang isa. Higit siyang marahas. Taas-baba . . . Taas-baba . . . Taas-baba . . . Itinayo ako nu'ng huli, isinalya't pinaharap sa dingding. Tutop ang aking bibig, parang hayok sa laman na tinutukan ang aking likod. Sunud-sunod . . . Paulit-ulit . . .Pabilis nang pabilis . . . Palakas nang palakas . . . Pabaon nang pabaon . . . Palalim nang palalim . . ."Mga hayop kayo! Hayooooooooooop! Putang-ina n'yong lahat!"KAYRAMI KONG NATUTUHAN sa aking bagong daigdig, dito sa isang liblib na nayon ng Camarines Sur; mula nang kunin ako ni Hermano Huseng pagkatapos niya akong maitakas sa piitan, kasama ng iba pang mga lalaking hindi ko kilala. Ang karanasan kong iyon ang nagpabago sa pananaw ko sa buhay. Mula sa nakade-kahong ideolohiya ay nakawala ako sa gintong hawlang nasususian ng maraming pagtutol at pagbawal. Ngayong ako'y kaisa na ng kilusan, sa kabundukan ko napagsino ang aking sarili - ang noo'y kayraming pangamba at takot na ayaw kumawala sa aking dibdib, ang aking pagkamakasarili na wala palang puwang sa sistemang sosyal, moral at pulitikal ng bayan; ang maling paglingon ko sa hinaharap; ang napakataas na pagpapahalaga ko sa edukasyon at hindi sa damdamin ng nakararami; ang kaginhawahan at kasiyahang nadarama ko kapag ako'y busog habang may mga kababayan akong hindi kumakain; at higit sa lahat, ang malaking takot kong mamatay dahil sa aksidente, pagkakasakit o pagtanda at hindi nang dahil sa bayan. Ang lahat ng ito'y naikintal sa isipan ko nang dahil sa kilusan. Nang dahil sa lihim na pag-ibig ko kay Hermano Huseng. Nang dahil sa dangal na nawala sa akin.Hndi binago ni Hermano Huseng ang kanyang pangalan sa kilusan bilang paggalang niya kay Tata Pulo. Samantalang ako'y bininyagan niya sa pangalang Ka Hermana bilang paggunitang minsa'y naging hermana ako ng "ampunin" nina Tatang ang patrong si San Isidro ng Tungkong Bato. Sa mahabang panahon ng pamamalagi ko sa kabundukan ay lalo akong napalapit kay Hermano Huseng. Ako ang nag-aasikaso sa kanya kapag siya'y nagugutom, nagkakasakit o nasusugatan sa tuwing may mga armadong militar na lumulusob sa aming pinagkukutaan. Katuwang ko sa pag-aasikaso sa kanya si Ka Santan, isang dating madreng guro na siyang nagtatago ng mga nakumpiskang armas ng mga militar nang minsang nagkaroon ng engkuwentro sa paanan ng bundok. Sadyang kaysarap pagsilbihan ang isang taong lihim na minamahal.Isang umagang lumalangoy ako sa ilog ay bahagyang umalimbukay ang alon nang isang malakas na katawan ang tumalon sa tubig. Nang lingunin ko ang nagmamay-ari ay muling tumambad sa aking harap ang isang taong nagtataglay ng malapad na dibdib, maumbok ang siksik na braso, masigla at malakas. Si Hermano Huseng."May mahalagang pulong mamayang gabi. Malaki ang nagawa mong tulong sa kilusan kaya't dumalo ka. May lihim akong ibubunyag sa ating mga kasamahan. Panahon na marahil para pagbigyan ko naman ang tibok ng aking puso. Ikaw ang pinakamahalagang taong dapat na makarinig sa aking ikinukubling lihim," ang sabi ni Hermano Huseng."Ito na kaya ang araw na itinakda sa akin ng Panginoon?" ang naitanong ko sa aking sarili. "Imposibleng mangyari, ngunit ayokong umasa . . . ayoko."Maliyab na maliyab ang sindi ng mga sulo nang dumating ako sa pinagdarausan ng pulong. Ayon sa isang kasama'y sampung minuto nang nagpupukulan ng mga tanong at nagpapalitang-kuro ang mahigit na walumpung kasapi ng kilusan, kasama na ang isang dating pulitiko, isang pinatalsik na miyembro ng gabinete, isang pari, isang kilalang tagapagtatag ng grupong pangrelihiyon, isang babaing newscaster, dalawang peryodista, isang propesor ng political science at dalawang dating militar na dinukot nina Ka Undo noon, na matapos pababain ng bundok dahil na rin sa kahilingan ng gobyerno ay nagretiro sa pagsusundalo at muling nagbalik sa kabundukan para panghabang-buhay na maging kasapi.Nagsisimula nang pumatak ang ulan nang ipahayag ni Hermano Huseng ang ganito:"Kailangang magsipaghanda tayo. Anumang oras ay maaaring pumasok sa teritoryo natin ang pwersang militar. Nagkaisa na ang gobyerno, ang simbahan at ang media laban sa atin. Hindi raw natin pinahahalagahan ang nilagdaang kasunduan. Kasalanan ba natin kung bumalik sa bundok ang dati nilang mga kaanib? Kusang-loob ang pagbabalik dito nina kapitan," ang bungad ni Hermano Huseng. "Lumalakas ang ating pwersa at iyan ang pinangangambahan ng gobyerno."Nagsindi siya ng sigarilyo. Nagpawala ng usok."Bago ako sumapi sa kilusan ay ipinangako ninyo sa akin na anuman ang maging desisyon ko sa hinaharap, ako'y inyong pakikinggan at uunawain." ang pagpapatuloy ni Hermano Huseng. "Sa pagkakataong ito, sa kapahintulutan ng ating punong repormistang si Kumander Magayon, ay nais kong ipabatid sa inyong lahat na kami ni Ka Santan ay lihim na nagkakaibigan. Nais ko siyang pakasalan at pakisamahan habang buhay. Kasal ang tanging halinghing ko kay Ka Santan. Ito ang huling halinghing ko, masaya na ako para sa aking sarili."Gumuho ang pangarap na aking binuo nang kayhabang panahon. Nawalang-saysay ang lahat ng aking pagsisikap at pag-asam. A, kayhaba ng gabing iyon. Kasinghaba ng magdamag kong pagluha. At bago pumutok ang araw, sa tulong ng isang aandap-andap na ilawan, ang sakit ng puso ko'y itinala ko sa isang kapirasong papel:Nagising ako sa katotohanang hindi nga pala maaaring mangyari ang lahat. Salamat sa iyo na nagpatibok ng aking puso. Salamat sa alaala. Maramng salamat sa isang napapanahong pagpapamulat. Paalam.Sumabay ang pagpatak ng aking mga luha sa walang lingon at salit-salitan kong paghakbang. Kayhaba na ng aking nalakbay. Habang daan, pumapalaot sa diwa ko ang huling saknong ng tulang sinulat ni Hermano Huseng na ipinabasa niya sa akin kamakalawa ng gabi:Kaysarap sanang maging malaya kung ang laya'yDi malalambungan ng pagsisisi o pag-aalipusta.Bawat makata'y isang laya sa diwa at dugo.Bawat diwa'y isang bala ng poot,Bawat patak ng dugo'y isang punlo ng dangal.Ngunit,Hindi sa pamumundok,Hindi sa paghawak ng armasNasusukat ang ang lakas at giting,Hindi sa lawakang paglusob at pananakopNakakamit ang laurel at kamanyang,Kundi sa loob ng ating sarili.Laban sa gutom.Laban sa hirap.Laban sa ligalig.Laban sa daigdig.Sa daigdig ng napasukong daigdig.Sa dakong hilaga, mga yabag na papalapit ang gumambala sa aking paghakbang. Isang mahabang kilabot ang humaplos sa aking buong katawan. Nagtago ako sa isang lihim na lagusang natatakpan ng mahahabang damo at dayami. Mayamaya'y natulig ako sa sunud-sunod na pagpapalitan ng mga putok kasunod ng maramihang pagsabog. Malalakas. Nakatutulig. Nakamamatay.Pagkaraan ng dalawang araw at dalawang gabing pagtatago sa lihim na lagusan ay nagpatuloy ako ng paglalakad. Inihatid ako ng aking mga paa sa kabayanan. Usap-usapan ang enkuwentrong naganap sa pagitan ng mga militar at NPA kamakailan.Bumalong ang pangangatal ng buo kong katawan nang tumambad sa aking harapan ang nakalarawan sa pamukhang pahina ng pahayagan. Isang sugatang lalaking NPA ang matinding nananangis sa harap ng isang babaing NPA na sabog ang utak at pira-piraso na ang katawan. Ang lalaking iyon, sa kabila ng sunog ang kaliwang mukha'y nakikilala ko pa rin. Siya ang lalaking nagtataglay ng malapad na dibdib at maumbok at siksik na mga braso, na noon, sa tuwing makikita ko'y nakadarama ako ng naiibang sigla. Ng naiibang pangitain. Ng di-maipaliwanag na damdamin.

What is the history of Philippine theatre?

PHILIPPINE THEATERTheater in the Philippines is as varied as the cultural traditions and the historicalinfluences that shaped it through the centuries. The dramatic forms thatflourished and continue to flourish among the different peoples of the archipelagoinclude: the indigenous theater, mainly Malay in character, which is seen in rituals,mimetic dances, and mimetic customs; the plays with Spanish influence, amongwhich are the komedya, the sinakulo, the playlets, the sarswela, and the drama;and the theater with Anglo-American influence, which encompasses bodabil andthe plays in English, and the modern or original plays by Fihpinos, which employrepresentational and presentational styles drawn from contemporary moderntheater, or revitalize traditional forms from within or outside the country.The Indigenous TheaterThe rituals, dances, and customs which are still performed with urgency andvitality by the different cultural communities that comprise about five percent ofthe country’s population are held or performed, together or separately, on theoccasions of a person’s birth, baptism, circumcision, initial menstruation,courtship, wedding, sickness, and death; or for the celebration of tribal activities,like hunting, fishing, rice planting and harvesting, and going to war.In most rituals, a native priest/priestess, variously called mandadawak, catalonan,bayok, or babalyan, goes into a trance as the spirit he/she is calling uponpossesses him/her. While entranced, the shaman partakes of the sacrificialoffering, which may be a chicken, a pig, a carabao (depending on the gravity of thespirit’s anger) or simply rice uncooked or in cakes, rice wine, and betel nut. Thisact, which represents the death of the supplicant at the hands of the spirit, adaptsitself to the occasion for which the ritual is held.Among the Tagbanua of Palawan in southern Philippines, the ritual of the diwata,which crowns a series of activities addressed to the spirits of ancestors, is heldafter the rice harvest on the last three days of the last moon, to ask the supremedeity Mangindusa, the other gods, and the spirits of ancestors for a bountifulharvest and for the well-being of the supplicants. For this most significantsocioeconomic and religious event, the interior of the home of the babalyan isdecorated with stripped palm leaves and bamboo slats with Tagbanua writing anddesigns. In the center of the large room, the ritual offerings are carefully arranged:a small wooden boat hanging from the ceiling (on this the ancestors “ride”); a maton which are spread the bowls or plates of uncooked rice, jewelry, betel nuts, ricecakes (which are later consumed by the people), ginger, onions; a ritual bambooswing which the babalyan rides or chants on; a stool on which are arranged morefood offerings; and the all-important wine jars set in a line in front of the swingand provided with oil-rubbed straws through which the spirits will sip the ricewine (wine is not found in the spirit world so it is the one item that best attracts spirits to the celebration).To the heady music of gongs and drums, the babalyan’s assistant, dressed in asarong skirt, tight blouse, and sash from which the wavy long knife called karishangs, opens the ritual by performing several dances and shaking in both hands theugsang (stripped palm leaves) with bells, in honor of Mangindusa who issupposed to be perched on the roof of the house. This part ends with thebabalyan letting out a scream and pulling the ceremonial staff attached to theceiling to denote that Mangindusa has departed. Soon after, the babalyan herself,also in a similar skirt and blouse, but with a black hood covering her face, worksherself into a trance, as she sips wine and swings herself in the middle of the room.Then she dances, balancing on her head a bowl with rice or a bowl with candles ora karis, while brandishing the palm leaves or two porcelain bowls or a piece ofcloth in her two hands, as she is followed by an assistant. To the continuedbeating of the gongs, the babalyan may then shake the palm leaves violently andstrike the sides of the wine jar angrily and sip wine, denoting that a spirit hascome down. As other spirits take turns possessing her, the babalyan’smovements may change—one spirit may prompt her to sip wine or softdrinks orwater; another may want to smoke cigarettes with those participating in the ritual;others may dance with a long knife or bolo on their heads; or oil the women’s hair;or lead the singing of the spirit song. The series of possessions is capped withthose present drinking and smoking and participating in the activities of the ritual(Fox 1982).Interestingly, these animistic rituals survive today even among ChristianizedFilipinos. In Isabela, the atang-atang ritual of the Ibanag features a gailydecorated small bamboo raft with offerings of rice, oil, eggs, cigarettes, rice cakes,and a little chick representing the soul of the sick person. Around this raftsituated on the ground, two women dance, drink, and chant Christian prayers tocure the sick. Later, the women take oil from the raft and rub it on the face, legs orhands of the sick.Aside from rituals, tribal dances which were more often than not mimetic may alsobe considered as proto-dramas. A majority of these dances, which markimportant events like baptism, courtship, marriage and even death, depictimportant tribal activities.The tribes of the Cordillera have dances that reenact the hunt for and the killing ofa boar, as well as the practice and ways of headtaking; the Aeta of Zambalesperform dances which show the techniques of gathering wild honey in the forestas well as hunting for fish; the Tausug of Sulu boast of dances that represent howoranges are picked or how not to catch a mudfish. The most important dance,however, among most Philippine tribes is the war dance. The war dance of theMansaka of Davao del Norte imitates the movements of model warriors calledbagani, as the latter fight with spears, bolo, and shields.Other tribal dances which may be considered proto-dramas as well are the danceswhich are playful imitations of animal movements, like the monkey, fish, and flydances of the Aeta of Zambales in Luzon; the hawk dances of the Higaonon inMindanao; and the butterfly, monkey, and bird dances of the Tausug and Sama inSulu.Mimetic too are some of the customs associated with courtship, marriage, anddeath among the ethnic communities. Of the courtship customs, the mostcommon is the debate between a male and a female, which may employ verse,song, and dance. The Maranao panonoroon has a boy and a girl chantingmetaphorical verses to each other, with the boy offering his love to the girl and thelatter warding off his verbal advances. The Cebuano balitaw features antiphonalsongs performed by male and female, which talks not only of love, but of theproblems of married couples and rural workers. Among the Tagalog, the debate insong and dance becomes an exchange of spoken verses in the duplo, where poetscalled bilyako use proverbs, riddles, the pasyon, and the awit as well ascontemporary events to advance their suits to the bilyaka of their choice. In the1920s, the duplo became a formal debate on an issue, and was called thebalagtasan.Mimetic customs related to weddings include: the Tagalog pamanhikan, whererepresentatives of the families of both the boy and the girl speak in metaphoricallanguage to settle the dowry or bridal price; and the Bilaan samsung, where, afterthe bride-price is paid, the bride and the groom are “forced” to sit beside eachother, and their hair “tied together” even if the bride “objects.”Finally, mimetic customs related to death are, exemplified by the baraning usa ofthe Aeta of Camarines, where a deer made of banana stalk and twigs “hunteddown” and offered to the dead to take to the next life.As a whole, indigenous dramas are well integrated into the lives of tribal Filipinos.These rituals, dances, and customs express their very beliefs and depict theiractivities and material culture. Furthermore, they help fulfill the basic needs of thetribe for a good harvest and victory in war, as well as the physical and spiritualwell-being of the sick, the newly born, the youth, and the newly wed members ofthe tribe. Finally, these plays bind the members of the tribe in a stronger bond forthe common good. Rituals of baptism, circumcision, marriage, as well as thedances that instruct children on the techniques of looking for honey or fishing orfighting in war, clearly work for the collective good. A good harvest and plentifulhoney and fish obviously benefit the tribe, while the display of war dancesteaches the young boys the primary duty of manhood, namely, fighting to ensuresurvival of the tribe against all aggressors. Similarly, the customs associated withcourtship, marriage, and death provide a way of expressing personal emotions in asocially accepted way, and of informing all of bonds that will have to be respectedby everyone, so that harmony may reign in society.The Spanish Colonial TraditionIn the three centuries of Spanish rule from 1565 to 1898, the Spanish colonizers,specifically the friars, showed a keen awareness of the power of theater both as atool for the Christianization of the natives and as a magnet to attract the latter tothe pueblo or town which constituted the foundation of Spain’s empire in thearchipelago. Consequently, the Spanish regime gave rise to and popularized thevarious types of secular and religious plays, the former usually staged to celebratetown fiestas, and the latter, to highlight important Catholic liturgical feasts orseasons like Christmas, Lent, or Easter. Many of these plays and playletscontinue to be popular among the Christianized folk who live in the rural areas andcompose the majority of the total population.Of the plays, the most important is the komedya, also known as moro-moro,linambay, arakyo, which is a play in verse introduced into the country from Spainin the 16th century and institutionalized in the 19th century. This theatricalspectacle takes from 3 to 15 hours and several sessions to perform. It has twoprincipal types: the secular, which concentrates on epic stories of love andvengeance; and the religious, which narrates the lives of patron saints. Elaboratemarches, lengthy choreographed fighting between individuals and/or armies, andmagical artifices wrought by heaven to save saints or Christians in distress ensurethe popularity of the komedya as principal entertainment during town fiestas.Deriving stories from native versions of European metrical romances, the orihinal(script) of the secular komedya usually depicts the conflict between Christianprinces and princesses and their Moorish counterparts. Typical of the stories ofthe secular komedya is the arakyo still performed in several towns of Nueva Ecija,which revolves around the search by Elena and Constantino for the Cross ofChrist and the obstacles they encounter in that search. As performed inPeñaranda, Nueva Ecija in 1987, the story of the arakyo remains basically what itwas at the turn of the century when this play, also known as tibag, first becamepopular.After his father, King Constancio of Rome and Constantipole, is killed by theTurks, the young Constantino sits on the throne and brings war to the Emperadorof Turquia to avenge his father’s death. Worried about the outcome of the war,Elena is assured by a voice from heaven that victory would be given toConstantino, but that he and Elena should in turn look for the cross on whichChrist died. Constantino wins the war and kills the Emperador of Turquia.Meanwhile, Queen Elena has left for the Holy Land to look for the Redeemer’scross. Princess Ordelisa of Turquia now bids farewell to her father, EmperadorCostroas, and leads a mission to the Christian court. She demands Constantino’ssurrender and exacts vengeance on Constantino’s general, Lucero (with whom sheis secretly in love), who with his companions made trouble when they joined the tournament in Turquia some years back. Meanwhile, Queen Elena has found thecross, but loses it to the Moors who intercept and attack her. Informed of this,Constantino sends Lucero on a mission to Turquia to demand that Costroas giveback the cross. The mission fails to retrieve the cross, but it brings Lucero face toface with Ordelisa once again. The general pledges his undying love for theMoorish princess and proves it by laying down his arms. But the other Moorspounce on, imprison, and sentence him to death by beheading. Ordelisa, who isnow convinced of Lucero’s love, decides to free him. In the end, a big battle iswaged between the Christians led by Constantino and Elena, and the Moors underCostroas and Ordelisa. Elena is about to kill Ordelisa when Lucero intervenes andbegs for her life. Defeated, the Moors agree to be baptized “so that the dirt oftheir souls may be washed away.”Traditional are the arakyo’s sets and costumes, its stylized gestures and rhetoricaldelivery of verses, its marcha (slow march) and paso doble (fast march),accompanied by band music, as well as its scenes of love between Moorishprincess and Christian general, of the embahada (mission) between kingdoms, ofdances to relieve long stretches of monotonous dialogue, of theatrical artifices.Supported by hermanos mayores (sponsors) and by donations from individuals,the arakyo, like many traditional komedya today, is cherished by the townspeopleas a form of dance-prayer or an extended dramatic devotional to the Santa Cruz sothat it may shower favors and blessings on both kin and community.Not as entertaining as the secular komedya, the religious komedya called komedyade santo, hardly survives to our day. Typical of these didactic komedya whichwere used by Spanish friars to teach Christianity and inculcate Christian colonialvalues is one still staged in Iligan City—the Comedia de San Miguel (Play of SanMiguel), written circa 1890. Also called Yawa-Yawa (literally, Devil-Devil), thiskomedya tells the story of how Lusbel rebelled against God, and how God,through the Seraphim, ordered San Miguel Arcangel (Iligan City’s patron saint) toquell the heavenly revolts and drive Lusbel, his cohorts and the Seven Capital Sinsrepresented by a huge sevenheaded monster, to hell where they are punishedforever for their pride and rebelliousness.Of the Philippine religious plays, the most outstanding and enduring has been thesinakulo — also known as the pasion y muerte (passion and death), tanggal(literally, to remove) or centurion— which probably saw light in the mid-18thcentury. Staged commercially or as community activity during Lent and often foreight consecutive nights during Holy Week, the sinakulo started as thedramatization of the Pasyong Genesis, the most popular verse narrative on the lifeand sufferings of Jesus Christ, and later augmented by apocryphal stories fromother pasyon and religious books like the Martir sa Golgota (The Martyr ofGolgotha) and popular reading materials like Liwayway.In Tambo, Buhi, Camarines Sur, the passion play known as tanggal is a folk interpretation of events of the passion that is distinguished both by its charm andnaivete as by its faith and fervor. For almost three whole days and with financialsupport from the barrio, older members of an itinerant group of tanggalista(members of the tanggal group) chant the Bicol pasyon and other episodes fromthe Creation of the World to the Search for the Holy Cross by Elena andConstantino, while the younger members of the group dramatize the actionsnarrated by the chant. Most popular are the following: doleful scenes like Christsaying farewell to his mother before he goes to his martyrdom; comic scenesfeaturing the antics of Judas Iscariot, the great comedian in any passion play;scenes of spectacle like the storm at sea where the Apostles take a little boat rideon Lake Buhi (sometimes with an escort of carabaos); colorful scenes like thedescent of the Holy Spirit on Mary and the Apostles; and finally, dramatic sceneslike the Assumption and Coronation of the Virgin in heaven.In urbanized towns like Cainta, Rizal, the sinakulo has reached heights of technicalsophistication in terms of sets which are more “realistic,” costumes which aremore historically accurate, dialogue which approaches colloquial prose, andlighting which produces effects of night and day, darkness and lightning. In spiteof all these, the sinakulo’s world view, whether in Buhi or Cainta, and like thoseof other religious plays, remains as simple as that of a medieval morality playwhere absolute and certain is the victory of good over all forces of evil.As popular but more numerous than the komedya and sinakulo are the playlets,which attest to the importance placed by the Spanish friars and the local priestsafter them on teaching Catholicism. Many religious playlets in the Philippinesmerely embellish the Catholic liturgy or dramatize more fully the feasts narratedby that liturgy, especially the events of Christ’s birth, passion, death, andresurrection. Others are performed to honor saints on their feast days.Some of the most important playlets are associated with the Christmas season.The Tagalog panunuluyan (seeking entry) and Bicol kagharong (going from houseto house) dramatize through a street procession the search by the Virgin Mary andSaint Joseph for an inn in Bethlehem on Christmas eve. The pastores (shepherds)may be a playlet depicting the journey of the shepherds, their encounter withSatan, and their adoration of the Christ Child, as may be seen in Cebu and Leyte;or simply a group of males and females in colorful costumes dancing and singingSpanish and native Christmas songs in front of different houses, as practiced incertain towns of Bicol. The niños inocentes found in the Tagalog areas, may be ashort play showing the beheading of babies below two years of age as ordered byHerod, as was the custom in some towns of Rizal; or a parade of higante (giants)as in Gasan, Marinduque. Lastly, the tatlong hari (three kings) may be a simpleprocession highlighting three males costumed as kings, as in Floridablanca,Pampanga, and Mabitac, Laguna, or a short play reenacting episodes in the searchfor and adoration of the Infant Jesus by the Three Kings, as in Gasan,Marinduque.The Lenten season, specifically the Holy Week, has many more playletsassociated with it. The osana (hosanna) found in almost all Christian areas,features the blessing of the palms and reenacts Christ’s triumphal entry intoJerusalem on Palm Sunday. The via crucis (way of the cross), observed in mostCatholic parishes, is a procession of the image of the Nazareno or Christ carryingthe cross, which meditates at 14 altars where the Stations of the Cross areenshrined. In Paete, Laguna, the stations on the meeting of Christ and his mother,and Christ and Veronica are dramatized with chanted dialogue and moving images.The paghuhugas (washing), performed in almost all Catholic and Aglipayanchurches, dramatizes the washing of the feet of the Apostles by Jesus on MaundyThursday. The huling hapunan or ultima cena (last supper), staged in someTagalog and Bicol provinces, reenacts the Last Supper in an actual dinner eaten bythe priest and 12 men playing the apostles. The siete palabras (seven words)observed in many Catholic parishes features a lifesize image of Christ hanging onthe cross, which moves its head each time one of the seven last words is spoken(with accompanying “thunder and lightning”) during the three hours beforeChrist’s death at 3 P.M. on Good Friday. The soledad (solitude), still done inBicol and Pangasinan, is a procession of the image of the grieving Mater Dolorosaafter the “burial” of her son on Good Friday or Black Saturday. This stops atdesignated houses where songs are performed to lighten Mary’s sorrow. Thepagkabuhay (resurrection) of Lubao, Pampanga, reenacts with special effects theResurrection of Christ in the early hours of Easter Sunday. The salubong(meeting), also known as sugat, encuentro, sabet, Alleluya, and padafung inCatholic and Aglipayan parishes all over the country, dramatizes the meeting ofthe Risen Christ and the Virgin on Easter Sunday morning in dance and song. Thisis climaxed by the removal of the Virgin’s black veil by a little angel, who descendsfrom the “heaven” of the four-posted galilea to sing “Regina Coeli, Laetare”(Queen of Heaven, Rejoice). The hudas, found in Pampanga and Bulacan towns,shows the burning of the effigy of the traitor Iscariot. The moriones (helmets) ofthe Marinduque parishes dramatizes the story of the Roman soldier, Longino,who while guarding the tomb of Christ witnesses the Resurrection, becomes aChristian, proclaims Christ’s divinity, and is beheaded by Pilate’s soldiers.The major genre of playlets performed in honor of patron saints is the moros ycristianos popular in Manila and many towns all over the archipelago in the 19thcentury. Today, this dance drama survives in a few isolated towns. Known bydifferent appellations, these playlets still dramatize the conflict betweenChristians and Moors/non-Christians. Notable examples of this genre are thekinabayo of Dapitan, Zamboanga del Norte, which depicts the conflict of theMoors and Christians in the Battle of Covadonga; the palo-palo of Ivana, Batanes,which survives as a dance with sticks between Moors and Christians; and thesayaw of Ibajay, Aklan, which underscores the defeat of the Moors in the handsof the Bisaya. A form of moros y cristianos, too, is the bakahan (battle) of SanAntonio, Laguna, which reenacts the fight between San Miguel Arcangel and theHudyo (Jews) on Good Friday.The secular and religious plays and playlets are drastically different in content andfunction from the indigenous plays. While the latter depict the life and activitiesof the tribe, the dramas with Spanish influence either showcase alien stories ofprinces and princesses from ideal worlds peopled by the “beautiful” white race ornarrate the life and sufferings of Jesus Christ and the saints of the CatholicChurch, which were introduced into the country by the Spanish friars. Moreover,the komedya propagated and continues to propagate a colonial mentality thatlooks up to the European as superior in race and religion, even as the plays andplaylets on the life and sufferings of Jesus Christ and the saints discourage selfinitiative, a critical attitude, and decisiveness, preferring to forge a passive will thatbows to autocracy and its hierarchy of authority. It is not difficult to see howthese plays contributed to the shaping of the native Filipino as colonial during theSpanish period and how they continue to discourage the development of personsand citizens in contemporary Philippine society.Introduced into the country by Spanish artists in 1878 or 1879, the sarswela hadits heyday from 1900 to 1940 in Manila and the provinces. Original sarswelawere created in Tagalog by writers like Severino Reyes, Hermogenes Ilagan,Patricio Mariano, Julian Cruz Balmaseda, Servando de los Angeles, and composerslike Fulgencio Tolentino, Juan S. Hernandez, Leon Ignacio, Alejo Carluen, andBonifacio Abdon; in Cebu, by writers like Vicente Sotto, Buenaventura Rodriguez,Piux Kabahar, and Fernando Buyser; in Pampanga, by writers like JuanCrisostomo Soto, Aurelio V. Tolentino, Felix Galura, and Urbano Macapagal; inBicol, by writers like Asisclo Jimenez, Jose Figueroa, and Valerio Zuñiga; in Iloilo,by writers like Valente Cristobal, Jimeno Damaso, Angel Magahum, and Jose Ma.Ingalla; in the Ilocos, by writers like Mena Pecson Crisologo, Mariano Gaerlan,Leon Pichay, Isaias Lazo, and Barbaro Paat; and in Pangasinan, by writers likeCatalino Palisoc and Pablo Mejia.Usually in three acts with music and dancing interspersed within the prosedialogue, the sarswela focuses on a love story between members of the upperclasses, which is spiced up with comic love episodes between servants, and mademore relevant with satirical attacks on usurers, corrupt politicians, oppressivelandlords, lazy husbands whose husbandry is wasted on cockfighting and othervices and, lately, students hooked on drugs and “Saudi” recruiters who takeadvantage of naive workers.One of the most popular sarswela of all time is Dalagang Bukid (CountryMaiden), 1919, which tells of the love between a pretty young flower girl,Angelita, and a young handsome law student, Cipriano. Principal obstacle to theirlove is a rich old man, Don Silvestre, who frequents the kabaret where thedalagang bukid sells flowers, determined to get the girl for himself. Takingadvantage of their addiction to cockfighting and cardgames, Don Silvestre lendsAngelita’s parents all the gambling money they want, certain that they would theneasily agree to deliver the girl to him as payment for their debts. Moreover, DonSilvestre uses his money to make sure that Angelita wins the beauty contest that means so much to Angelita’s parents. In the end, after a series of romanticmisunderstandings and comic misinterpretations, Angelita is crowned queen, butsidesteps Don Silvestre’s trap by eloping with Cipriano, who has just finished hislaw studies.The traditional sarswela now survives only in the Ilocos, from where about half adozen commercial troupes fan out to other Ilocano-speaking provinces forperformances during town fiestas. In Bantay, llocos Sur, veteran sarswelistaBarbaro Paat continues to put up his sarswela in May. Typical of Paat’s storiesis one which depicts the plight of a wife, who has been sent away by her husbandand mother-in-law, and the sufferings of their young daughter under the father’snew wife. Although its costumes are contemporary, Paat’s sarswela has all theingredients of popular traditional sarswela—namely, the love songs, the scenes ofmelodrama, and, most of all, the comic scenes which the audience loves above all.Introduced from Spain in the 19th century, the drama (to be distinguished fromthe generic English term “drama”) is a play in verse and/or prose and usually inone act. As written by Filipinos at the turn of the century, it often revolves on anaspect of Filipino contemporary life, e.g. divorce, gambling, and other social vices,usually in the framework of a love story. During its golden age from 1900 to1940, the drama was performed in a series of three-in-one performance, or byitself before a sarswela. Like the sarswela, it could be presented commercially oras a community activity, on a proscenium stage in a teatro or on an open-air ruralentablado, using telon (theater curtain or backdrop) and appropriate props todenote setting. Although the drama is hardly ever staged today, it still enjoysimmense popularity on radio, television or film, either as tear-jerking, sala-setmelodrama popularly known as soap opera, or as comedies with a lot of slapstickor toilet humor.The drama as a Philippine form could be one of three types, depending on itsemphasis: melodrama, comedy, or drama simboliko. The pre-World War IImelodrama which aims to make people cry is typified by Veronidia, 1919, byCirio H. Panganiban, which depicts the tragic death of a divorcee who only wantsto visit her dying (first) husband. The comedy which entertains with laughter isexemplified by Julian Cruz Balmaseda’s Sino Ba Kayo? (Who Are You?), 1943,which weaves its hilarious situations around the mistaken identities of the maincharacters—a widower and his pretty daughter, a widow (the widower’s newwife) and her handsome son (who turns out to be the boyfriend of the widower’sdaughter), the male and female servants. The drama simboliko (allegorical drama),popular in Manila and environs from 1898 to 1910 as a vehicle of politicalprotest, is exemplified by Juan Abad ’s Tanikalang Guinto (Golden Chain),1902, and Aurelio V. Tolentino’s Kahapon, Ngayon at Bukas (Yesterday, Todayand Tomorrow), 1903.Kahapon, Ngayon at Bukas chronicles the struggle of the Filipinos, hererepresented by Inangbayan (Mother Country), under the leadership of Taga-ilog (patriotic Filipino) to overcome the oppressors in the country’s history: theChinese, the Spanish, and the Americans. Act I opens with Inangbayanreprimanding Asalhayop (Filipino collaborators) and his friends for feasting on thetombs of those who perished when Balintawak fell to the Chinese. Taga-ilogexhorts everyone to rise against Haring Bata, the Chinese King. For a fee,Asalhayop informs Haring Bata of the planned revolt, but is exposed byInangbayan and burned alive by Taga-ilog for his treachery. The Filipinos launchthe revolt against the Chinese and win a signal victory. But another power comesto the Islands, represented by Dilatnabulag (Spain) and Matanglawin (Spanishcolonial government), who make a blood compact with Taga-ilog. In Act II theHalimau (Spanish friar) strips the natives of their little wealth. Taga-ilog defieshim and is imprisoned. Ignoring Matanglawin’s orders to release Taga-ilog,Halimau forces Inangbayan to surrender all her riches in exchange for Taga-ilog’sfreedom. Dahumpalay (Filipino collaborator) wants Taga-ilog shot, but instead iskilled by Taga-ilog, who burns the traitor’s face and uses his clothes to escapefrom prison. Halimau orders Inangbayan buried alive, but the latter is liberated bythe forces of Taga-ilog who finally overthrow the Spanish colonizers, even as thethird colonial power, represented by Bagonsibol (America) and Malaynatin (theAmerican insular government) arrive to pledge friendship with the Filipinos. ActIII opens with women sewing the Philippine flag which will be raised when thenew moon rises. Taga-ilog persuades Malaynatin to give the Filipinos theirindependence, but the latter is reluctant to do so. Malaynatin then falls asleep andin a dream sees Taga-ilog and his army preparing to fight America with cannons,air ships, and tanklike vehicles. In the end, Inangbayan begs for the country’sindependence but is refused. But when young children kneel before Bagonsibol insupport of Inangbayan, Bagonsibol’s heart softens and he grants the peoplefreedom.In general, the drama and the sarswela represent a significant development inPhilippine theater history, if only because they pioneered in a more realisticportrayal of Filipino life and culture, showcasing not only Filipino costumes andsets, but typical Filipino characters, dialogue, and situations as well. Moreover,unlike the colonial plays, these forms trained their sights on current issues ofPhilippine society, launching diatribes against those they perceived as social“offenders.” If these plays can be faulted, it would be for the simplistic way inwhich they solve the very real problems they present. Coincidences, accidents,and other dei ex machina are used to eliminate all obstacles and to come to acorrect (not necessarily happy) ending for all concerned. By a stroke of the pen,the villains all mend their evil ways and become model members of theestablishment church and community.The “seditious” dramas, however, are an exception because they dared to paint thebloody struggle of Filipinos against the American colonizers, hoping thus toenlighten and exhort the Filipino masses to support the revolutionary movementbased in the mountains, and thus prevent colonization by another Western power.The American Colonial and Contemporary TraditionsShort as it was, the American colonial regime from 1901 to 1946 had a profoundeffect on 20th century Philippine theater, first in form and later in philosophy.This influence is seen in the Philippine bodabil (vaudeville), the Western playspresented in English or in Filipino translation/adapatation, and the original modernplays written by contemporary playwrights.Introduced in the 1920s from the United States, bodabil is not a play per se, but apotpourri of songs, dances, and comedy skits which showcase what is popular inthe United States. As may be expected, the Filipinos who perform in bodabilcannot help but imitate, and naturally end up as the “local versions” of theAmerican “originals.” During the Japanese Occupation, the bodabil began toinclude a short melodrama at the end, to accommodate the popular prewar filmactors and actresses who could no longer appear in films since the Japanese hadconfiscated all film equipment. This expanded bodabil, which reigned supreme asentertainment during the Occupation, was known as the stage show. After thewar, the return to popularity of the movies drove the stage show into small, cheaptheaters or to open-air stages in the provinces.Through the Westernized educational system established by the Americans allover the archipelago, Filipinos were introduced to the first examples of“legitimate” theater in the Philippines, i.e., plays which have so-called “artisticmerit.” Exclusive schools for the rich, which were steeped in “good” Westerneducation, led in the production of Shakespearean tragedies and comedies in the1930s, until other groups presented contemporary Western classics in the originalEnglish or in English translation. Later, a few groups presented Broadway plays,especially Neil Simon comedies and grand musicals like Annie and Evita, whileothers continued to perform translations of “classics” of the Western stage(Sophocles, Plautus, Shakespeare, Goldoni, Moliere, Ibsen, Chekhov, Shaw,Wilde, Miller, Williams, Beckett, Arbuzov, Fugard) into Filipino. Finally, othercompanies adapted Western plays like Clifford Odets’ Waiting for Lefty andBertoit Brecht’s Caucasian Chalk Circle and Life of Galileo Galilei because oftheir social or political messages.Needless to say, the bodabil and the Western plays presented in the country byFilipinos contain very little of Philippine life and culture in them. The bodabil hasFilipinos twisting their tongues, belting/mellowing their voices to approximateAmerican singers, and gyrating like Elvis Presley or flexing their limbs in the aira la Fred Astaire. In the same manner the Western plays have Filipinos imitatingLaurence Olivier’s accent to be convincing as Macbeth or adopting a New Yorkaccent to do justice to Neil Simon.Furthermore, these shows transport audiences into the American dreamlandthrough the songs, dances, comedy skits, and production numbers on stage, whilericher Filipinos try to get their catharsis from empathy with the characters of aWilliams play, an endeavor which does not always succeed since Filipino audiences tend to situate these plays within the context of colonial culture in thePhilippines, often to the detriment of the reality they present. Finally, because oftheir proven effectivity in Americanizing Filipinos, bodabil and Western playscertainly help to make more acceptable to the Filipino America’s continuingpresence in the Philippines.On the other hand, although the Filipinos were Americanized in thought, taste,and temper by these plays, so were they equipped with many dramatic theoriesand styles that opened new avenues for growth and expanded the horizons fortheatrical expression of Filipino playwrights, directors, actors, designers, and stagemanagers. Even as foreign plays strengthened the colonial bias, they alsointroduced many styles of Western theater and the theater of Asia, Africa, andSouth America that eventually enabled the Filipino to write and stage plays thatrepresent Philippine realities with greater fidelity.Raised in the Anglo-American tradition, theater artists have created original playsusing the literary styles and tendencies of the West—both the representationalstyle which seeks to create an illusion of reality through three-dimensionalcharacterization, and the presentational style, which uses the play as a vehicle forthe exposition and promotion of social issues and ideas. As these artists learnedmore and more about the folk dramatic traditions of their country and of Asia,they likewise also began to experiment with traditional Filipino dramatic forms,like the sarswela, komedya, and sinakulo as well as with Asian styles like the Nohand the kyogen.Most of the original plays of today were written for literary contests or evolvedthrough workshops or created for semiprofessional companies, student dramaorganizations, and numerous community theater groups all over the country.Outstanding directors who have contributed to the development of modernPhilippine theater are Lamberto V. Avellana, Henry Lee Irwin SJ, SeverinoMontano, Wilfrido Ma.Guerrero, Onofre Pagsanghan, Rolando S. Tinio, ZeneidaAmador, Antonio Mabesa, Behn Cervantes, Nonon Padilla, Anton Juan Jr.,Lutgardo Labad, Soxy Topacio, Joel Lamangan, and Tony Espejo, all Manilabased; and Leo Rimando, Joonee Gamboa, Nestor Horfilla, Steven PatrickFernandez, Frank Rivera, Rodulfo Galenzoga, Karl Gaspar, Edward Defensor, andOrlando Magno, who are based in the regions.Of the representational types, it was Western realism, which seeks to move anaudience through empathy with well-rounded, flesh-and-blood characters, thatwas adopted and adapted by Filipino playwrights. Realism in the contemporarymodern theater follows two tendencies: the psychological which focuses on theproblems of individuals; and the social which situates and roots individualproblems within the larger framework of a class society.Outstanding psychological studies of character are first found in some Englishplays, such as Wilfrido Ma. Guerrero’s Three Rats, 1948, which is about the affair between a woman and her husband’s best friend, and Nick Joaquin ’s A Portrait ofthe Artist as Filipino, 1955, which depicts the tragedy of two unmarried sisters inthe Spanish City of Intramuros, who are slowly being devoured by the new,growing commercialism and pragmatism under America, but who stubbornly clingto the genteel, albeit impractical, world of hispanized culture.From these seeds grew and blossomed the dramas of psychological realism in thelast two decades, among them: Orlando Nadres ’ Paraisong Parisukat (A SquarePiece of Paradise), 1974, which shows how a young girl decides to sacrifice loveand idealism to the banality of a stockroom assistant’s life; Bienvenido Noriega Jr. ’sBayan-bayanan (Little Country), 1975, which exposes the personal dreamsand heartaches of Filipino expatriates in Switzerland; Rene O. Villanueva ’sHiblang Abo (Strands of Gray), 1980, which portrays four tragic characters in ahome for the aged; Isagani R. Cruz ’s Kuwadro (Portrait), 1980, where an agingsarswela star pathetically “relives” the glory days of the sarswela; Tony Perez ’sBiyaheng Timog (Trip to the South), 1984, which shows how an autocraticpatriarch meddles in and destroys the lives of his children and how after his death,his children finally become whole as persons; and Elsa Martinez-Coscoluella ’s InMy Father’s House, 1987, which depicts the slow destruction of an Ilongo familyand the personal disintegration of its members during the Japanese Occupation ofNegros island in the 1940s.Social realism on the modern Philippine stage was pioneered by Alberto Florentino ’splays in the early 1950s, such as The World is an Apple, 1954, which shows how apoor man steals to buy medicine for his child. Plays such as this, however, becamemore popular only in the 1970s and 1980s. Reuel Molina Aguila ’s In Dis Korner(In This Corner), 1978, tells of a boxer who sacrifices his personal and familyinterests in order to buck the system of “fixing” which exploits boxers like him.Paul Dumol ’s historical play, Francisco Maniago, 1987, presents the painfulrealization of Francisco Maniago that absolute and unquestioning fidelity to theKing of Spain is possible only with his betrayal of his own community, family,and self. Jose Y. Dalisay Jr. ’s Sugatang Lawin (Wounded Hawk), 1978,explores the meaning of “heroism” during the Japanese Occupation and hisgradual realization of the meaning of true heroism. Finally, Chris Millado ’sBuwan at Baril sa Eb Major (Moon and Gun in Eb Major), 1985, shows inmonologue or dialogue the politicization of two brothers (a farmer and worker),a socialite, a priest and a tribal woman, a student activist, and a teacher.The presentational style on the contemporary Philippine stage, which emphasizesthe discussion of social ideas derives principally from Brecht’s Theater ofInstruction and later from Augusto Boal’s Theater of the Oppressed. Proliferatingespecially during the Marcos regime which censored realistic portrayals ofpoverty and oppression in media, many forms in the presentational style pointout and discuss social ideas in a less realistic but no less effective manner,consciously destroying the illusion of theatrical reality and employing symbols,mime, dance, songs, stylized sets, costumes, props and almost anything that would clarify and intensify social/political/economic ideas for their audiences.The documentary style was employed by some playwrights in order to relatehistorical events or persons to the present. Using narrators and slides ofnewspaper clippings, Al Santos ’ Mayo A-Beinte Uno atbp. Kabanata (May 21and Other Chapters), 1977, traces the life of Valentin de los Santos through threeperiods of struggle against colonial rule to explain why “Tatang” was obsessedwith freedom and why he founded the Lapiang Malaya.The Brechtian style with touches of absurdism is evident in Paul Dumol’sAng Paglilitis ni Mang Serapio (The Trial of Old Serapio), 1968, one of the mostperformed modern plays of the last two decades, which shows how a syndicaterigs the trial of a beggar, Mang Serapio, who “wastes” the earnings of thesyndicate by loving and caring for a “child.” Serapio’s eyes are gouged out—apunishment considered “humane” because it will make him a “better” beggar.A similar style is used in Al Santos’ Ang Sistema ni Propesor Tuko (ProfessorGecko’s Way), 1980, which pokes fun at the authoritarian rule of a fascisticprofessor to comment on Philippine society under the Marcos regime; andRolando S. Tinio’s May Katwiran ang Katwiran (Reason Has Its Reason), 1972,which shows how a landlord manipulates a peasant’s simple mind to accept thelandlords “superiority.”Typical of the inexpensive, portable, and short plays called dula-tula (dramapoem), which were evolved for symposia or rallies, is Jose F. Lacaba’s Ang MgaKagilagilalas na Pakikipagsapalaran ni Juan de la Cruz (The FantasticAdventures of Juan de la Cruz), 1976, a poem which narrates one day in the life ofan ordinary Filipino, who realizes that wherever he may go he has no real rights;and Richie Valencia’s Iskolar ng Bayan (Scholar of the People), 1976, whichnarrates one day in the life of a University of the Philippines student.Brechtian techniques have also been used for full-blown musicals, which may be:rock or pop musicals on contemporary themes, like Nukleyar! (Nuclear!), BienAligtad, and Magsimula Ka (Make a Start), 1983; “ethnic” musicals, likeMaranatha (Make Haste, Lord), 1974, Halik sa Kampilan (Kiss the Sword),1978, Ranaw: Isang Alamat (Ranaw: A Legend), 1985, and Sinalimba (MagicBoat), 1986; or ethnic dance dramas, like Diablos (Demons), 1989; andHinilawod, 1992. Featuring a band of rock singers and musicians on a separateplatform and a group of dancer-actor-singers on stage, Al Santos and Joey Ayala ’sNukleyar!, 1983, strings together songs, dances, and slides that explain nuclearreaction, exposes the horrors unleashed by the bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki,and finally attacks the establishment of nuclear plants in the Philippines. Anotherimportant musical is Dong de los Reyes ’ Bien Aligtad, which describes the“necessary” evolution of a simple slum dweller into a notorious “criminal”because of police corruption and military violence. One of the most popularmusicals of our decade is Gines Tan’s Magsimula Ka, which focuses on the decisions made by individual young graduates to be themselves by pursuingcareers of their choice above their parents’ objections.Important achievements in the successful use of ethnic performing, visual, andliterary arts to convey the problems of Mindanao, like the insurgency,militarization, landlordism, exploitation of the ethnic communities, andlandgrabbing, are: Rodulfo Galenzoga’s Maranatha, which uses an old Lanao taleabout a big, black, predatory bird, to expose corruption of politicians and thegrowing militarization in Mindanao; Halik sa Kampilan which uses the bayok(debate in chant) tradition, the kapamalong-malong (dance with the tubular skirtcalled malong) and the Pilandok character of Maranao culture among others;Ranaw: Isang Alamat which creatively combines the pangalay, ethnic martial artsmovements and chants with contemporary musical idioms; and Fe Remotigue andDon Pagusara ’s Sinalimba which brilliantly uses Bagobo musical materials andinstruments for contemporary artistic expression.Dance dramas which use the ethnic music and movements in order to dramatizeboth traditional folklore and contemporary myths are the most recentdevelopments of the presentational style. Examples are Denisa Reyes ’ Diablos,which uses a Bagobo tale about the evil bird Minokawa in order to comment onthe violence of nuclear arms; and Edwin Duero-Agnes Locsin ’s Hinilawod, whichnarrates the epic of Labaw Donggon and his brothers Humadapnon andDumalapdap.Some plays successfully blend realistic and nonrealistic styles. Juan Tamban,1978, focuses on an upper middle-class social worker, who gets politicized whilestudying her thesis subject, the street urchin Juan Tamban, who eats roaches andlizards. In this play, Malou Jacob uses a chorus as narrator and commentator totie together a series of highly realistic and moving episodes. Tony Perez ’s SaNorth Diversion Road (On North Diversion Road), 1988, has two actors actingout the roles of different married couples and their various reactions to theproblem of marital infidelity. Anton Juan Jr.’s Death in the Form of a Rose,1992, intersperses realistic scenes with choral passages using masks and symbols,in order to dramatize the “execution” of Paolo Pasolini at the hands of the“establishment.” Floy Quintos ’ Fili, 1991, “deconstructs” Rizal’s novel, Elfilibusterismo (Subversion), and creates a fictitious Rizal friend whose frivolitybecomes a parallel to the apathy of the Fili’s protagonist, Simoun.With the recent realization among theater scholars and critics that traditional formsof drama still popular among the masses should not only be studied but be imbuedas well with positive contemporary messages, urban playwrights have“revitalized” traditional forms to comment on contemporary issues and concerns.Virgilio Vitug ’s Sinakulo ning Balen (Passion Play of the Nation), 1983, aspresented in Lubao, Pampanga, unveils a new Christ, Jesus Makabalen, whocondemns fiscals who accept bribes, fake recruiters who victimize haplesspeasants, candle sellers who commercialize the blessing of the pope, and government officials who are insensitive to the needs of the people. Althoughhis enemies succeed in crucifying him, Jesus “rises again” because the ordinarypeople decide to continue his struggle.The traditional komedya in San Dionisio, Parañaque found its first innovator inMax Allanigue, who wrote Prinsipe Rodante (Prince Rodante), 1962, which usesall the conventions of the komedya but rejects its divisive anti-Muslim message,and instead argues that a person’s respect for justice, not his religion, should bethe basis for judging that person.Because of its enduring popularity among Filipinos, the sarswela has beensuccessfully updated by Amelia Lapeña-Bonifacio in her Ang Bundok (TheMountain), 1976, which shows the harassment of the Igorot by foreignspeculators digging for gold in the Cordilleras and the unity the mountain peopleforged to fight their oppressors.The “seditious” drama of nationalist playwright Aurelio V. Tolentino, Kahapon,Ngayon at Bukas (also known as KNB), has been revived and reinterpretedseveral times in the last two decades. One of the most successful productions ofKNB was that of Chris Millado, 1990, which reinterpreted the main protagonistTaga-ilog as a tattooed native datu, a Bonifacio-type revolutionary, and acontemporary New People’s Army fighter.Finally, the oldest of all traditional drama, the mass, was given new meaning in oneof the most popular protest plays of the 1970s. Pagsambang Bayan (People’sWorship), 1977, by Bonifacio Ilagan reinterprets Christ’s sacrifice, the parables ofthe New Testament and the priesthood itself, according to the problems of thepeasants and workers in our time.Because of the growing awareness among Filipino playwrights of other Asiantheater traditions, a few of them have experimented with Asian forms. AmeliaLapeña-Bonifacio’s Ang Paglalakbay ni Sisa (Sisa’s Quest), 1976, calls backfrom the dead the madwoman in Rizal ’s Noli me tangere (Touch Me Not), so thatshe may narrate in the ancient incantatory style of the Japanese Noh, the travailsshe underwent in life; while her Ang Madyik na Sombrero (The Magic Hat),1976, takes a picaresque Filipino character for a kyogen-style farce in Tondo,Manila. Bonifacio has likewise pioneered in the use of local folktales and variousAsian puppet traditions for her children’s plays.

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